A wave is a phenomenon of interference, from one point to another with
Awave is a phenomenon of interference, from one point to another withexchange of momentum and energy, but without matter transfer. All thewaves require a medium and a source of propagation. Waves may loseenergy as they transfer through a dense medium (attenuation). Thereare waves that radiate isotropically (uniform in all parts) from apoint may lose intensity since the energy that they call spread outover a relatively large area (Stangalini, et al.,2013 p.556).
Mediumparticles are displaced in a perpendicular direction to the energydirection transport. Molecules are not spread out and compressed asin longitudinal waves. This is as a result of attraction inherentbetween the adjacent molecules (Stangalini, etal., 2013 p.556)
Thisis a form of wave where particles of the medium are displaced towardsthe direction parallel to that of energy transport. The energy istransported without the actual transport of matter when the particlesvibrates in a parallel direction to energy transport (Baev,2009 p.692)
HowLongitudinal and Transverse waves works
Whenwaves do pass through air, molecules making the substance move to andfro but there is no forward progression with the wave. The moleculesthat are near the source of the wave make the first point ofmovement. Their movement the molecule adjoining into motion and inthis wave the wave moves forward. The waves in longitudinal wavesmove parallel to and fro to the direction that the wave advances.Sound waves are longitudinal made up of a series of rarefaction andcompressions. Longitudinal waves are created by mechanical vibrationthat produces rarefaction and compression in a medium. Woodwindinstrument like clarinet is used, longitudinal waveforms. When theinstrument is blown, a thin reed vibrates. The vibrating reed pushesair molecules and then pulls away. The area where all the moleculesof air results and are pressed together, and right near it, the areaof air molecules are spread apart. So when rarefactions andcompression propagate from one part to another, they createlongitudinal wave (Baev, 2009 p.692).
Ina transverse wave, the molecules move forth and back at right anglesto the wave direction and advances. A wave at the surface of the bodyis transverse. A transverse wave may consist of pulses. Transversewaves consist of pulses results when there is wave oscillation aboutsome equilibrium point for a long period. Under those conditions,pulses are followed by another pulse immediately of oppositedisplacement. Such alternating pulses are wave trains. Transversewave transfer energy in a perpendicular direction A vibrating stringis a transverse wave. Waves move perpendicularly along the stringlength (Baev, 2009 p.692)
Comparisonbetween longitudinal and transverse waves
Transversewaves are propagated in a right angle direction to the vibration ofthe particles whereas longitudinal waves are passed paralleldirection to the vibration of the particles. Secondly, Transverse istroughs and crests while longitudinal are rarefactions andcompressions propagation. Transverse waves can travel through liquidand solids surface whereas longitudinal can travel through gases,solids and liquids. In addition, transverse can be polarized whereaslongitudinal cannot be polarized. Example of transverse are waves ina stretched spring, water waves, and wave as a result of down and upmotion of slinky. Examples of longitudinal are wave to horizontalmotion of a slinky, sound waves, etc (Stangalini,et al., 2013 p.556).
Awave is specifically a transfer of medium that transfer energythrough a medium without transferring matter permanently. In a wave,many particles of the medium are displaced temporarily and then goback to the original position (Baev, 2009 p.692).Waves can be categorized in many. They are categorized as eitherlongitudinal or transverse.
Baev, L. V.,2009. Propagation of Longitudinal and Transverse Waves in aMultimodulus Elastic Medium. Journalof Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics 50(4),pp.691-97.
Stangalini,M., S. K. Solanki, R. C. & Pillet., V. M., 2013. First Evidenceof Interaction between Longitudinal and Transverse Waves in SolarMagnetic Elements. Astronomy& Astrophysics 554(2),IssueA115, p. 554.