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Action Review



Organizationsneed an assessment of a continuous performance group, looking at thefailures and the success, thus ensuring supports of continuousimprovement. AAR-After is an option used infacilitating the assessment. It works through bringing together aparticular team discuss event, task, action or project in an honestand open fashion. A systematic AAR across any company can assist indriving the change. It helps in building trust among the members andovercoming fears. When it is correctly applied, AAR can be a keyaspect of the internal systems of motivation and training. Ways ofconducting AAR are different (Alam,2007).

Thesimplicity at the center of the tool stipulates that there is so muchpotential and find the right way that will give the best outcome. Theprocess should be simple to be put into remembrance. Nevertheless,the essence of AAR is to bring the relevant groups together to thinkabout a given event, project or activity. The state plays a pivotalrole during the time of disaster. Nevertheless, the exact part of thestate is a mirage to disaster victims. More difficult to decipher,are the connections between the programs of the state from primary tosecondary level. The ARR aims to make the role played by the stateand the relationships more comprehensive(Levy &amp Gopalakrishnan, 2013)

Governmentresponse towards natural disasters

Whatwas supposed to happen?

Immediatelyaftermath of disasters, federal aid is made available after the statehas made formal requests. The extent of the impact of man-made ornatural disaster can make an area prone to external forces. The headof state usually makes a statement begin FEMA-Federal EmergencyManagement Agency efforts. FEMA takes a short time to theoverwhelming that results from a catastrophe to present a directrelief supporting the pretended. It is referred to as the phase ofdisaster response. When the catastrophe is over and solved a periodfor rebuilding emerges with a time to recover from the forces of thecatastrophe (Levy&amp Gopalakrishnan., 2013).

Declarationsof Major Disaster and Emergency Status

Thegovernor of the state orders introductory catastrophe reports putinto completion aftermath of the disaster. Soon the compiling of thereport is made the head request to the head of state for emergency inthe regions affected. The application is then transmitted as soon asthe level of the catastrophe is indicative coupled with a widerweather events are in advancement.

EmergencyDeclaration-it gives the head of state a capacity to set out supplement funds tothe local and state attempts to protect property and saving of lives.The overall support offered is given may not exceed 5million dollars.

DisasterDeclaration-itpoints out that the catastrophe is essential opportunity exceedingthe states abilities to manage. Help is given to distinct parts.Immediately the making of statement is presented, FEMA is given aprerequisite capacity to occupy federal departments, one commission,two agencies, one author and one corporation services.

Typesof Assistance

Threefederal governor request three types of help that federal employ

Assistanceof an Individual -for families, single person, farm managers, in the aspect of grants,unemployment assistance, immediate housing and relief of tax.

Assistanceof the Public– Local communities funds, states and no profit groups to bringback facilities of the public.

MitigationMatching Fund-forlocal communities and state that eliminates the vulnerability of anarea to hazards may be inclusive of the following: Equipment,facilities, personnel and supplies provision technical assistanceloans and grants. Private nonprofit organization provides utility,educational, essential services and medical service entitled tofederal support. Federal state mitigates funds in buildingreconstruction to withstand disasters in the future.

FEMAis an existing independent federal agency body with its headquartersin Washington. FEMA has additional 4,000 assistant employeesavailable to help during the disaster strike. They work inpartnership with another business is part of a national emergencysystem of management. Partners are inclusive of local and stateemergency, American Red Cross, and twenty seven federal agencies.There are ten regional offices of FEMA with two area offices. Eacharea serves several states in disaster planning. Regional staffdirectly works in disaster planning in order to develop mitigationprograms and also meet the needs when disaster occurs(Hartman, 2006)

Whathappened for a particular event at all levels?

On2004 December, a magnitude earthquake hit the Indian Ocean thusgenerating a Tsunami described as one of the deadliest in the recenthistory. Tsunami occurred in the coastal parts of Sri Lanka,Indonesia, Thailand, South India and other nations, leavingdestruction of properties and deaths. Causalities are estimated to bebetween 228,000 and 310,000. International pledges for the areadamaged have reached about 2.3 billion Euros. Experience shows thatthe years of rebuilding is much a momentous effort. For example,Hokkaido in Japan took more than five years to fully recover from1993 tsunami that was triggered by earthquake (Wade,2005).

Whatwent wrong or right at all levels

Replyis made when the disaster is detected in an area. It involvespositioning and mobilizing emergency equipment getting people fromdanger water, food, medical services and shelters provision, andbringing systems and damaged systems back online. Governmentagencies, local responders, and private organizations also takeaction. When destruction is above the state and the primary power(Relations, 2005),the support of the federal is needed. Recovery is a task to rebuildfrom the disaster and can take many months or years. In effect, theresponse can affect the regional and state services, community andinfrastructure regional, community and facilities of the statelivelihood and lives of many people. During the stage of recovery,federal grants and loans can assist. The cost of recovery can bebeyond the scope of state and local governments to repair sewage,water, and other services that are essential (Mack,2008).

Responseversus Recovery

Theemergency is dependent on immediate goals of the affected people. Theimmediate needs after events are rescue, food, and information. Afterdirect danger, the main focus is centered towards rebuilding. Sorelief companies can distinguish recovery and response

Areafor Improvement:

Operationcontinuity- FEMA continuity of operations (COOP) has centered onaspects in which the facilities of FEMA become unusable. The approachis directed by the directive of FEMA and then approved by the whitehouse National Security team. The secretary of DHS then signs it. Theafter action report plans have not been fully implemented on how thebusiness should balance of personnel deployment with a need to beconsistent with steady state operations. For example, some topmanagement fails to make strategic decisions in regard to whichemployees allowed to be deployed. As a result, particular componentsmet difficulties when performing their activities for state (Binns,2003).There were various challenges that were experienced

•Thecomponents of FEMA deployed staffs void of the consideration thattheir emergency relocation responsibilities in the group and theimpact it would have presented the ability of the business to beconsistent with a continuity of the state in the events of futuredisasters

• ChiefAdministrative Officer office met several backlogs in certainprograms such as Freedom of Information request act processing

• GrantPrograms Directorate met distributing challenges in its day to daypurpose among the teams thus impacting communication inherent ofgrant recipients.

•Regionsof FEMA met setbacks in core function maintenance. For example, VIIregion deployed some IMAT members, that diminished capacity of thearea to respond to disasters in their own regions.

Theseexperiences are indicative of the current continuity plans are voidof scalability and fail to effectively position leaders so as tocommunicate their expectations in operation`s maintenance. Thecontinuity plans are void of options for operations levels, or aframework for those levels. In addition, FEMA Headquarters responseand Continuity plans are not synchronized and thus may overlap(Wade, 2005)


Theseverity and scale of the storm made several extensive effectflooding, transportation networks damage, and another infrastructure,fuel disruptions, power outages, and damage of property across theInland and East Coast. FEMA coordinated Federal recovery and responsethat contributed to the national effort, integrated to support thecommunities affected. As FEMA responds from large scale incidents andtries to recover areas identified as needing help. In Agencypreparation study, immediate response and storm recovery, the articleidentifies strength and areas to be improved


Alam,K. M. U. (2007). DisasterPreparedness for Natural Hazards: Current Status in Bangladesh.Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development,.Kathmandu:.

Binns,T. B. (2003). FEMA:Federal Emergency Management Administration. .Chicago, IL:: Heinemann Library.

Mack,A. (2008).Disasters:Recipes and Remedies. NewYork, NY: New School of Social Research.

Hartman,C. W. (2006). ThereIs No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and HurricaneKatrina.New York: : Routledge.

Levy,K., J., &amp Gopalakrishnan., C. (2013). TowardsDisaster Risk Reduction: A Policy-focused Approach to Natural Hazardsand Disasters. .London: : Routledge.

Relations,C. O. (2005). TsunamiResponse: Lessons Learned: Hearing before the Committee on ForeignRelations, United States Senate, One Hundred Nineth Congress, FirstSession, February 10, 2005. Washington:U.S.: G.P.O.

Wade,M. D. (2005). Tsunami:Monster Waves. .Berkeley Heights, NJ: : Enslow.