AFRICAN AMERICAN DIASPORA
Firstand Last Name
Thisdocument is a research proposal for the topic “Ethnicity, Genderand Diasporic Hybridization in Community Organizing between AfricanAmerican and African Immigrant Women in the US”. The researchproposal seeks to document the ways in which African American andAfrican immigrant women relate in the non-profit communityorganizing. It will explore the experiences of African Americans andAfrican immigrant women in Diaspora status, with special focus on howthey cope with the identity shift, feelings of alienation and thewider complex outcome of race, ethnicity and gender from a culturalgeographic and transnational feminist perspective. The research isprimarily aimed at exploring the nature of interactions betweenAfrican American women and African immigrant women in nonprofitcommunity organizing workplaces, with a view to find out whethercross ethnic collaborations based on commonality of purpose have apositive impact on the organizing goals. Such policies, if proved tohave a positive impact on community development and integration incolor communities, may be enhanced across cross racial communities aswell.
Theunderlying motivation for the research is that Diasporichybridization maybe having a positive effect on the way AfricanAmericans perceive cross ethnic and cross racial collaborations, andthat its controlled incorporation in community policing may helpbridge the divide between people of different ethnic and racialconstitutions. The research will combine a mix of primary andsecondary methods-including a detailed literature review showing thediscourse of the study of race and gender in the African Diaspora,and its connection with interactions between women in the nonprofitworkplace in the literature review portion of the study, and adedicated combination of interviews and questionnaires as primarydata collection tools. The research findings will be analyzed usingmultiple tools and methodologies, but a leading tool will be use of agraduated likert scale against a standard yes/no response to get afully qualitative response range able to discriminate against thenature and extent of respondents’ feelings. The expected researchoutcomes will be to show the nature of gender and race specificinteractions between peoples of the African Diaspora.
Thissection will be split into sub-sections of background of study,definition of key concepts, problem statement, aims of study, andresearch questions, overview of the design of the research as well aschapters outline.
Background of the Study
Theresearch is based on the rich racial and ethnic diversity of thepeople of the US, and how the interactions of these differing sideshave contributed to the current society’s stratification. Theresearch will draw from a rich history of the process of AfricanDiasporic constitution, starting with the widespread involuntaryimmigration of black slaves from the African continent, particularlyfrom the various nations of the Western African region between the16thand 18thcentury. The subsequent abolishment of slave trade, the allocation ofcitizenry to the freed slaves, and the ensuing struggle for humanrights and civil rights movements of the 19thand 20thcenturies are also key factors in the development of the currentDiaspora characteristics1.Of particular importance to the research, however, is the relativelyrecent hybridization of the members of the African Diaspora, a peoplewhose nationalism ideologies have now become entangled between beingAmerican and claiming ancestry to African nationalism, an idea whichconceptually has continued to shape these people’s sense ofidentity and belonging2.It is this hybridity in the manner of interactions of AfricanAmerican and African women engaged in community policing andorganizing that is the specific interest of this study. The researchwill be based on community organizing as a process, and the role thatAfrican affiliated women play in the continuous improvement of thepeople living in communities of color. In essence, the research mustevaluate the importance of the paradigm shift in ideologiestraditionally held by the African Diaspora due to the introduction ofhybrid diasporic constitution, and the effect this is having forcommunities with cross ethnic foundations, as advanced by blackwomen. Therefore, in essence, this research is also focusing on blackwomen’s role in cross-ethnic policing.
Definitionof Key Concepts
Underthe definition of key terms and concepts part, there will bedefinitions of key concepts.
Diaspora- refers to a dispersed population with a common origin, typically asmaller geographic area, usually away from their place of origin.
AfricanDiaspora- Refers to the entirety ofpeople of African origin dispersed from the continent of Africathrough time, mainly due to the Slave Trade of 16thto 18thcentury, but also due to other diplomatic and personal reasons.
AfricanAmerican- A person of Americancitizenship or dual citizenship of American and African Country. Forthe interests of this paper, such a person is assumed to be living inAmerica and therefore a member of the African diaspora.
AfricanImmigrant- African immigrant is aperson residing in America but who is an African. For the purposesof this research, an African immigrant is a person who has immigratedinto the US in the recent past and who is positioned in a manner asto constantly and influentially interact with resident AfricanAmericans mainly as students, professional workers, diplomaticenvoys, and community workers.
Gender-the entirety of all characteristics, including physical, behavioral,mental and psychological, that define the differences between maleand female human beings. In this paper, the term gender is appliedespecially to set out the interactions between the different gender,and their perceptions in the issues of African Diaspora.
Hybrid-this term is used to define the conceptual overlap of ideologiesbetween those of the African American Diaspora and the immigrantAfricans. This term is used especially in the context of communitypolicing involving a mixture of Africans and African Americans, andhow such ideological fusion can help benefit the community.
Race-a system of human classification defined by such unique identifiersas genetics, form, language, ethnicity, geographic and other humangroups identifiers into distinct populations
CommunityPolicing- A community improvementstrategy especially targeting such issues as safety, crime,radicalization and polarization of minority groups, and managingsocial disorder. It involves formation of partnerships involvingpotentially conflicting groups as a way to realize harmony andcommonality of purpose. This term is used especially with the aim ofdescribing cross ethnic not for profit community initiatives thatare an interaction platform for experimenting the benefits ofinteractions between African Americans and immigrant Africans.
Thispart will briefly state the key focus of the study in the form of astatement of the problem. The statement will be as follows:Understanding the nature of interactions between women AfricanAmericans and women African Immigrants with special focus onrelationships in non-profit entities
Aimof study and research questions
Theresearch will be aimed at exploring the diasporic inter-relations ofthe African Americans and immigrant Africans. It will be guided bythe following research questions:
To what extent do the diasporic articulations and the resulting subjectivity of hybrid identification affect the daily interactions between African immigrant and African American women?
How do way of being for both the native African Americans and Africans influence ideologies and methods of organizing across lines of ethnicity and class for women in the African Diaspora?
Does hybridization of the African Diaspora bring positive organizational changes in the work-place?
Do interactions, collaborations and other manner of associations between African Americans and immigrant African women in nonprofit community organizing bring positive outcomes in community integration and policing?
The subjectivity of hybrid identification is constantly negotiated in the daily interactions between African immigrant and African American women in a way that brings organizational effectiveness.
Way of being in the context of the African Diaspora informs organizing methodology that embraces fluid transitions between multiple identifications. These methods inform a counter narrative to traditional organizing and provide key approaches to addressing social inequalities in multiethnic communities.
Interactions based on commonality of purpose between African American and immigrant African women in nonprofit community organizing have no significant bearing in cross ethnic integration within communities of color in the US.
HistoricalPerspective of the African Diaspora
Africansmovement or emigration from Africa is mainly attributable to theSlave Trade between the 16thand 18thcenturies, as well as to immigration on voluntary basis in thecenturies that followed the slave trade, lasting to date3.In the century following the abolition of slave trade, most of theformer slaves already existing in the US were naturalized ascitizens, but never granted full citizen rights until much later.During the struggle for liberation and ever since, there has been astrong front of activism in the aspects of human rights, racialdiscrimination and group segregation4.Today, all members of the African American and immigrant Americancommunities are considered as the African Diaspora. To differentiatethis with the groups with a similar history but resident in Europeand other regions, Gilroy calls the American Diaspora the Atlantic,or the Anglophone. This diasporic constitution has always felt, andindeed been seen to be, secluded from the mainstream Americancitizenry, as much struggle to find a niche in seemingly foreignculture.
Today,the majority of administrative policies marking the segregation, suchas state sponsored racism, have been abolished and instances of suchbeen severely punished. But the social political identification ofdiasporic individuals with other races in the US has not beenrealized, and thus a strong divide still exists between the AfricanDiaspora and the majority citizenry5. In addition, there also exists cultural, racial and identitydifferences between the African Americans whose citizenry is bybirth, and the high number of immigrant Africans entering the UStoday, the total of who are roughly ten million (Gilroy views theDiaspora as a fluidity the rapidly changing social aspects governingthe larger diaspora’s sense of being, identity, place in societyand manner of association within its members and members of the widernation6.Thereby, in a way, the diasporic constitution is in such a manner asto establish its own hierarchical structure semi-autonomous from thelarger nation, thus the implied shift from national state to a globalmovement in Gilroy’s discussion. Indeed, this Atlantic serves as amaterial monument to the fluidity of the diaspora. This diasporicfluidity rejects both the American and Euro-Centred conceptualizationof linear human development as defined by spatial time-developmentarrangement, and tends to center on origin as a focal point ofidentity. Gilroy views the diaspora from the aspect of individualplacement of members outside the constitutive wholeness of thesociety in which they reside, in that the people do not feel as partof it, and therefore, the longing for a place of “homeland”abides with them.
Contemporarystudies have therefore continuously shifted from a rigid definitionof the diasporic organization, and tended towards viewing it as aprocess of emerging standards and norms, as well as a way of being7.There is identified a hybridization of the Diaspora, an emergingconcept of seeking to retain their identity, while also incorporatinga re-thinking whose effect is a new social outlook towards the wholeAfrican American identity. For instance, African Americans’ viewstoday regarding the rest of American citizenry are less radical thanseveral decades ago, but it does not blur the self identification ofdiasporic communities and the main citizenry8.Diasporic identity is a complex of mix of themes and ideologies thathave evolved across time and space. Its analysis can therefore bemade on different conceptual and evolutionary levels. In GlobalDimensions, Harris views AfricanDiaspora as the voluntary and involuntary dispersion of the Africanpeople throughout time, the emergence of a cultural identity in thenew lands based on their social conditions, and a psychologicalreturn to their ancestry land, conceptually. Within this concept ofview then, the African Diaspora achieves a complex element of changeacross geography, class, gender and time9.
Inrepresentation of the African Diaspora, there exist multiple layersof influence, such as political manifestations, gender expression,various industries and socialistic formations, with cleararticulations between themselves10.This articulation is also versatile, swaying with emergingglobalization trends as well as the shift in ideologies held by thetraditional Diasporic organization. Thus, there does not exist asingle authoritative description of American Diaspora, but acollection of singular points of view which can be interconnected tobring forth a clear image of the rapidly changing phenomenon ofAfrican American peoples11.Tony Martin, on the other hand, points out that the term diaspora ismisleading, as no such element as a longing for homeland has beenuniversally attached to the diaspora community. He suggests, instead,that the term African Dispersion be used, because dispersion isreally the undisputed phenomenon of the movement of Africans tovarious destinations, mostly voluntarily in the last severaldecades12.
TheModel Minority Narrative in the Context of the African Diaspora
Thereexists scattered information suggesting that the African Americancommunities may view immigrant blacks as being allocated betterchances and terms under the affirmative action policy, and this maycontribute to inter-racial tensions between the two groups. A paperpublished by the Michigan State Law review states that in 1999,immigrant black children aged 18-19 years made up only 13% of allblacks, yet they constituted 27% of all blacks selected forprivileged colleges. In Ivy League Schools, immigrant blacks made upto 40.6% of all enrolled blacks. The research, titled SocialReconstruction of Race and Ethnicity (2011), stresses that thereexists such disparities between the two groups as to cause internalconflicts, with immigrants being perceived to have better chancesthan natives13. However, such contentions are localized and subjective, with largergeographical blocks showing a tendency for the African Americans toshow more progressive achievements materially and socially14.
Inthis regard therefore, it would seem acceptable to view theperceptual differences between the two groups as being unfounded, thetruth being that both groups have the same chances of success. Thereis, however, a certain driver of these differences in perceptionbetween the groups that is valid. A significant number of blackimmigrants access the Diaspora purely for purposes of education orspecialized jobs such as engineering, research and science15.These skilled immigrants stand better chances of employment – it ison the basis of their skills they are immigrated into the US, and arenot a representative sample of the ordinary black population. Thissaid, it will therefore emerge that a significant percentage of blackimmigrants will be seen to benefit more from the affirmative action,though the job allocation process is fair and based on merit. Similarcontentions have been advanced with regard to the quality of life andexpectations that the different groups have. African Americansperception of Diaspora is that of seclusion from being, alienationfrom dignified existence and human development, and thus a situationthat demands a shift in ideologies, expectations and personality.
Thisgroup also holds the Diaspora as a closed group experience thatrejects the westernized development concepts, focusing largely ofinternal searching for identity and sense of belonging. The immigrantgroup, or at least the larger part of it whose immigration isvoluntary and based on positive expectations, have different viewsregarding the Diaspora16.To them, Diaspora means opportunities, progress, growth andfulfillment. Thus, to the African Americans, the immigrant Americansare pro-westernization and anti- blacks, and thus an enemy of theirideologies and perceptions. This view maybe the real cause ofdisagreement between the groups not, as popularized, a notion ofbetter chances for immigrants. The model minority concept has beenapplied with regard to other races, such as the Japanese collegestudents with very good educational intelligence and exclusive accessto state’s best colleges and universities. The authenticity of themodel minority theory as practical is very debatable, and as yetsubjective in its constitution. It may be nothing more than alocalized misconception fueled by the already longstanding culture ofsegregation and discrimination. On the other hand, the emergence ofwhite supremacy claims within the US states may have aggravated thewhite- black divide, and therefore the rise of the model minorityconcept allowed flourishing to show the black society that theirperceived fate is their own doing, and that fair chances existed forall17.Regardless of the wider reality, model minority issue has been at thecenter of the African American and African immigrant relationship,and has contributed to the way the two groups view each other, andthus the way they relate.
LocatingAfrica in the African Diaspora
Re-centeringstudies of the African Diaspora to focus on direct connectionsbetween the Diaspora and the Continent is critical to broadeningAfrican Diaspora discourse to incorporate knowledge, perspectives andemerging trends in scholarship from Africa and its contemporarymigrants18.Broadly put, Diaspora assumes Africa as an imagined homeland, thoughthe thought of returning to Africa by the Diasporic community is avery debatable, subjective issue. The role that this imaginedhomeland notion plays in defining the whole Diaspora discourse isjust a conceptual one, only helping the communities affected by thethought find meaning in their identity. The study of the AfricanDiaspora has often been complicated by the fact that not all blacksin America are as a result of colonial discourse, because some ofthem are voluntary immigrants seeking professional careers orstudies.
Therefore,finding a global umbrella under which to classify the AfricanDiaspora is hard and not representative of the entire reality19.African immigrants possess a certain feeling of long distancenationality in which they are attached to their countries of origin,and this attachment influences their view of the US, theirinteractions with the native blacks, views regarding westernizationand the entire concept of Diaspora for blacks. There are variousfactors that influence the nature of interactions between nativeblacks and immigrant blacks, diasporic articulations being one ofthem. However, other pedagogies arise, including the issues oftransnationalistic ascriptions, gender, and class. The research willexplore how interactions are negotiated in a situation wheredifferent pedagogical articulations arise. The study will look at howdiasporic articulations shape the nature of relationships betweennative blacks and African immigrants
NonprofitOrganizational Theory, Race and Gender
Thisresearch is focused on evaluating interactions between AfricanAmerican and African immigrant women in non-profit workplaces. Theresearch does not have a cross-gender perspective however, thebackground understanding of how race, gender and the implementationof organizational theory are related is essential in informing theresearch. Organizational studies have long documented the importanceof understanding the implications of race and gender in the workenvironment20. Organizational theory works on three perspectives including thesociological, psychological and anthropological perspectives. It iswithin these perspectives that the issues of gender and race arise,since the self identity of people within a social setting is likelyto impact the way they chose who to interact with and how. Similarly,the psychological constitution of a community’s members affectstheir outlook towards the workplace, their roles in the workplace andtheir responsibility towards others and towards organizationalsuccess21.
Eventhough studies of gender, and race within the community organizingframework have been documented extensively, it is only recently thatcontemporary theory has begun to add more complex analysis ofdifference and working relationships, informed by sociological,psychological and anthropological perspectives sensitive to thesubjectivity of race, class and gender. The intersectionality ofrace, class and gender is an important aspect of an individual’sidentity within an society’s structure, and has a bearing also ontheir manner of interactions with others. At the root of my critiqueof traditional conceptualizations of difference in organizationaltheory is the ideological imperative towards objectively andquantitatively identifying discrimination. Social science andorganization research is rooted in a history of western hegemony andpolitical agenda22.This section will unpack the problematic assumptions inscribed intothe theoretical framing of race and gender in organizational studieswith interventions by women of color into the discourse oforganizing.
HybridityConcept in non-profit Community Organizing
Broadlysaid, hybridization of the African Diaspora is about the varioussegments of the African Diaspora feeling a sense of duality, itself aconnection between their current host society and a foreign homeland.This connection with an ideological homeland maybe simply apsychological connection not really founded on the existence of thegeographical Africa, but only a conceptual linkage that gives theAfrican Americans an identity source23.It cannot be argued that the diasporic Africans overwhelmingly wantto return to their homeland, or that they harbor thoughts of thegeographical Africa as the supreme land of identity fulfillment, butonly that its existence gives them a source of contentment regardingtheir ancestry. Asante 2000 observes about the hybridization of theAfrican Diaspora that hybridized individuals retain strong links withthe cultures, traditions and places of their origin, even though theyare not in illusion about any possibility of return to their past24.They understand that there can never be unifying, in the literalsense, between their current and past circumstances, even though theyconceptually feel that they have two homes ( their present physicalsocieties, and their ancestry origins). Hybridization, therefore,suggests an entanglement of thoughts of identity, betweencontemporary circumstances and conceptual belonging to another placeand culture25.
Inthe context of the modern community organizing policies,hybridization is manifest in the way that native African Americansand Africans associate. Where natives feel a sense of hybridizednationalism, they are likely to associate positively with immigrantAfricans, because the natives would see in the immigrants anactualization of the ideologies they hold of being linked with ahomeland far from the US. In addition, the additional concept of themodel minority as theorized regarding the way natives perceiveimmigrants in some localized settings is likely to impact the natureof workplace interactions. Certainly, immigrant Africans, especiallythose whose presence in the Diaspora is voluntary, are likely to havemore positive attitude towards their present circumstances thannative African Americans. This reality is likely to lead to apositive influence on the workplace relations between immigrants andnatives.
AfricanAmerican and African Immigrant Women in Organizational Theory
Thegrowth in African American and African immigrant women’sinvolvement in the nonprofit sector, as well as academia, is linked,and likely to be affected by a history of working interactions withwhite administration in the academic foundations, communitydevelopment and community organizing initiatives. This study linksthe legacy of discourse between the academy, the private sector andactivism to emphasize an emerging phenomenon in African Diasporicinteractions that involves the negotiation of common goals across thevarious groups, aimed at attainment of a commonality of purposethrough organization across purpose26.
Blackfeminist ideology is a key factor when addressing problems in amulti-racial community, or a community with a significant mix offemale black American and female African immigrant people. A crucialpart of the research’s argument, is the importance of everydayinteractions, practices and collaborations within nonprofitorganizations, and whether the nature of these interactions impactpositively or negatively on the organizational performance27.
Whatremains to be fully explored, even in the growing research infeminist and organizational studies is the particular intersectionsof race, class and gender that is the black woman s experiencebecause this experience has unique significance in feminist praxisand community organizing within minority communities. Feministscholars have debated over the last decade, and continue to discussthe ways in which black women`s hybrid subjectivity adds to adistinct way of knowing, and practicing resistance that has not onlyinformed feminist theory, but has lead led to the emergence oforganizational theories and methods that challenge western hegemony,while contesting the internal fractures of ethnic identification forwomen in the African Diaspora28.Today, within the growing literature highlighting the interventionsof women of color into feminist organizing and mainstream organizingliterature, very little has been done in attempt to understand thedaily interactions, collaborations and associations across ethniclines in the black community organizations involving native AfricanAmericans and immigrant Africans. This study is aimed at revealingthe nature of outcome of such interactions with regard to the successof the community initiatives these interactions seek to fulfill.Based on the outlined ideology of commonality of purpose, this studywill then now turn to the particular ways in which African Americanwomen and African immigrant women are engaging in thereconceptualization of organization, interaction and cross ethniccommonality of purpose within community based non-profit organizing.
Theorganizations proposed to be researched in this study engage innonprofit organizing within multiethnic communities in Miami, FL.Particularly African American, Haitian, Dominican and a smallerpopulation of African immigrants from Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal and avariety of other countries in small numbers. The study of the natureof interactions among the organizing staff, and in the difference inthe manner in which they engage with difference among their clients,may have implications for racial and gender formations in the largersociety.
Inthis chapter, the actual tools used for this research will be laiddown. The research organization is mainly qualitative in nature,focusing on the nature, and not the number of instances, ofinteractions between African American women and African women innon-profit entities. However, quantitative analyses of data regardingthe representation of both groups in the sampled workplaces will bedone. The research will combine both primary and secondary sources.Secondary sources will be utilized in text analysis regarding theissues of diasporic connections, gender and class marginalization, aswell as in determining the nature of relationships of the studygroups in non-profit work. In total, four literary works will beanalyzed for their contribution to an emerging conversation aroundshifts in identification among black immigrants and native blackwomen in the US. These works are particularly focused on expressingthe experience of hybridity through the local and global contexts ofmarginalization and economic degradation in DC, Maryland. The choiceof these particular four works was done on the basis of theirproximity to the study area as well as their deep analysis of theissues surrounding the research. With regard to primary data, thestudy will be arranged in four sections each of six months.
Thefirst six months will include active ethnography through a 20 hourper week volunteer assignment at each nonprofit field site. Weeklyfocus groups, and open ended interviews will be conducted at eachsite during this first section. The second research section involvesimplementing a community project under the advisement of bothorganizations. The employment of black feminist organizing ideology (that is, the operational ideas underlying black feminism) will informthe structure and goals of each project. Weekly focus groups and openended semi structured interviews will be conducted throughout thesecond section. In the third research section, sociological discourseanalysis will be used to identify key concepts in the way members ofthe African Diaspora organize themselves across gender, class andother functional groupings.
Textanalysis and participant observation can be used to understand thecontributions of non-profit organizations. Agency text materials usedin this analysis include agency program manuals, workshops, eventfliers, organizational mission, objectives, media releases and staffand board meetings minutes. Materials will be narrowed to thosecreated and distributed between January 2013 and April 2014. This 16month span was chosen to analyze the alternative narrative totraditional organizational interactions through-out the course of oneprogram year as well as the way in which organization adjust toshifts in community need.
Thefourth section is dedicated to photo voice the use of communityrepresentation pictures by members of the community to best depictthe community’s values, to understand the underlying hybridityconcepts at work in the community. This method will also help bringinto perspective the elements of the embodiment theory (theory thatstereotyping can really govern the expectations of members of acommunity and thus their way of life).
Thetwo samples to be used include Girl Power and Concerned African WomenMiami Chapter, both non-profit organizations engaging in communityactivities. Girl Power has a staff of 11 women, 8 of whom are ofAfrican descent. The board is composed of 11 members, 1o of whom arewomen , 9 of African descent. The interactions between all Africansand African Americans in the study will form the research, while theinteractions between these two groups and all other persons involvedwith the organization will form the control group. Miami chaptercurrently has 25 members. All women of African descent, and the totalpopulation size is 47.
Dueto the small number of respondents, the results do not presume to berepresentative, in contrast, this study engages with the subjectivityand fluidity of identification, while making a case for further studythat delves into the complexities of interactions between differentpeoples of African descent in various geographic spaces.
Therequest for voluntary participants will be conducted from April 2014to June 2014 or until the 50th confirmation is received. Interviewswill be conducted from June to August. It is the intent of this studyto interview agency members from African American and Africanimmigrant backgrounds. Respondent anonymity will be enhanced for theprotection of human subjects, seeing that the nature of the researchis touching on a sensitive issue of cross gender, cross racialinteractions.
Questionnaireswill precede the in-depth interviews to be used in the research. Thequestionnaires will use a likert scale of 1-10, in order to capturethe extent of respondent conviction regarding a research question.This will work to capture the feelings of the respondent moreaccurately. The major themes to be captured by the questionnairesinclude the Africa connection, fulfillment in cross racialworkplaces, and organizational effectiveness resulting frominteractions of African Americans and Africans.
Dataanalysis will be conducted in three phases. The first phase willfocus on analysis of data obtained through questionnaires and will bedone through data coding. Critical discourse analysis will be usedfor text analysis. Text data will be obtained from various sources,including social media forums focusing on community feelings towardsthe respondent organizations, and press releases.
Disseminationand availability of Research Data
Particularlycrucial to the purpose of this study is the method of sharing thefindings as well as the process by which the findings were reached.Several open forums will be organized to present the research to theparticular organizations researched and their clients. A 15 minutepresentation will be followed by an open discussion. In conjunctionwith these forums, a digital presentation will also be made availableby way of a blog.
Inthis chapter, a brief and accurate assessment of the findings of theprevious chapter will be made. An exhaustive description of thenature of the findings will be written, which will be in totalagreement with the corrected data and relevant to the objective ofthe research. The expected statements in the conclusion chapter willshow whether the hybridization of the Diaspora, and its influence onthe nature of interactions in workplaces having both African Americanand Africans is positively affecting the organizational development.
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1 Ebony. The Black Community Is Not at War with Immigration Reform.
3 Blue Miranda. Black American Leadership Alliance Anti-Immigrant Rally Keeps on Adding Fringe Activists…and Senators. Right Wing Watch.
4 Brown  Jacqueline Nassy. Black Liverpool, Black America, and the Gendering of Diasporic Space. Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Aug., 1998), p. 291
5 Chivallon, Christine &. Fields Karen E. “Beyond Gilroy`s Black Atlantic: The Experience of the African Diaspora”. A Journal of Transnational Studies Volume 11, Number 3, Winter 2002 p. 359
7 Wahlbeck Östen. Diasporic Relations and Social Exclusion:The Case of Kurdish Refugees in Finland
8 Zeleza Tiyambe. The Challenges of Studying the African Diasporas. African Sociological Review 12, 2, 2008, p. 4
9 Bailey, Arlene & Ngwenyama Ojelanki. Integration and Communication in the Diaspora: Intersectionality and Community Facilitation through ICTs. 2012.
11 Dodd Martina. 14 Contemporary Artists Who Are Challenging the Definition of African Art (Part 3)
12 Bailey, Arlene & Ngwenyama Ojelanki (2012).
13 Brown, Kevin and Romero, Tom I. II, "The Social Reconstruction of Race & Ethnicity of the Nation`s Law Students: A Request to the ABA, AALS, and LSAC For Changes in Reporting Requirements" (2011). Faculty Publications. Paper 813
14 Strauss Jack. Allies, Not Enemies: How Latino Immigration Boosts African American Employment and Wages. American Immigration Council
17 Institute for Cultural Diplomacy. The "Experience Africa" Program.
19 Lips Hilary. Gender The Basics. Routledge, 2013
20 Gordon Edmund & Anderson Mark. The Africa Diaspora: Toward an Ethnography of Diasporic Identification. The journal of American Folklore, Vol. 112. No. 445. 1999, P. 282
21 Spivack Emily. Unity Dow on a generational shift in Africa
23 Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800 (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998
24 Asante, Molefi, “The Afrocentric Idea in Education”, Reflections: An Anthology of African American Philosophy. James A. Montmarquet and William H. Hardy, Editors. Australia: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2000.
25 Arthur John A. Invisible Sojourners: African Immigrant Diaspora in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
26 Ransby, Barbara, “Afrocentrism, Cultural Nationalism, and the Problem with Essentialist Definitions of Race, Gender, and Sexuality”. Dispatches from the Ebony Tower: Intellectuals Confront the African American Experience, Manning Marable, Editor. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000
27 Clark-Hine, Darlene, “The Black Studies Movement: Afrocentric-Traditionalist-feminist Paradigms for the Next Stage”, The African American Studies Reader, Nathaniel Norment Jr., Editor, Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2001
28 Patterson Tiffany and Kelley Robin. Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World. African Studies Review. Vol. 43. No. 1. Special Issue on the Diaspora (Apr., 2000). P. 11