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ANIMAL SCIENCE BREEDING CATTLE

AnimalScience Breeding Cattle

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Breedinglivestock have been developed by many years of human and naturalselection. Breeds have been chosen to fit a broad range of conditionsin the environment and the needs of humans (Maudet, Luikart, andTaberlet, 2002, p. 942). Genetic science during the twentieth era wasdirected to intensive selections of production genes in order toaccomplish rapid development in increasing the performance level oflivestock in the farm. Genetic science substituted the art ofbreeding animals. Technological advancement in various forms wentbeyond the expectation of the breeder as the groundwork for thebreeding stock option. The benefits became readily obvious.Development at the desired target is increased and was perceived atthe second half of the era.

Thebenefits facilitated by technological advancement are not beingargued about however its unbridled implementation may havedevastating impacts. The power of the international livestockindustry be a number of breeds, developing on a platform oftechnological advancement, has greatly weakened genetic assortment ofanimal genetic sources or AnGR by marginalization of local breedsalong with the loss of characteristics that will be essential in foodsecurity. The principles of genetic diversity conservation shouldbecome the top priority. Conservation of genetic traits necessitatesthe reconciliation of genetic diversity and genetic improvement.Factors including local adaptation, product quality, and animalwelfare should also become major priorities.

Themain objective of this activity is to determine the methods used incattle breeding and to recognize the relationships between breedingand genetic losses among cattle.

Goalsand Type of Operation

Themain objective of doing this activity is to increase the weaningweight among cattle under experiment. A lot of factors aside fromgenetic impacts, control weaning weights of cattle. For instance, ageat the time of weaning is recognized to have the most effect inincreasing the weight. Thus, increasing management and nutritionalinputs in an attempt to have greater number of cattle experiencedreduction during the early part of fixed breeding season. Generally,a cattle’s diet is made up of complete milk during the early stageof life and as the cattle reaches around three months of age, thecattle is give half of the quantity of consumption for milk and thehalf of the quantity of consumption for forage. There are diverserations that can be used to feed however the general rule for feedinghas to be mainly grain such as corn, barley, oats, etc withsufficient additional meal-type feeds such as soybean and cottonseedto produce a protein content of about 15 percent.

Thetype of operation used to increase weaning weight is feedlot. Feedlotcattle expended majority of their lives on grazing land. Cattle areusually brought to feedlots since pasture quality tend not to enablecattle to achieve the marketable weights particularly during droughtsor times when rainfall seldom occurs. Further, people in both andexport domestic markets dynamically demand grain because of theability of the industry to constantly provide market prerequisites interms of quantity and quality. Feedlots provide a number ofadvantages in the environment. For instance, beef feedlot is a lotmore efficient because of less cattle and land necessitated. Inaddition, less stress is given on the environment as well as lessproduction of greenhouse gas emissions. From the perspective ofemission, superior nutrition allows feedlot cattle to expand tomarket weights a lot faster. In particular, feedlot cattle whencompared to cattle that feed on grass produce lesser emissions forevery kg of beef generated.

SelectionObjectives and Technique of Selection

Themain objective in choosing feedlot is to improve weaning of the herd.The technique used in selection is the tandem selection for bothbulls and cows. Tandem selection is an approach of artificial choicein which beneficial characteristics are chosen for in sequence. Forexample, one may have the option for both augmented milk yield aswell as augmented content of milk fat in cows through tandemselection by initially choosing those with the best traits, forinstance, those that generate the greatest milk yield, and then asthe trait reaches the satisfactory level, by beginning to choose forthose chows that generate milk with the highest content of milk fat.Nonetheless, for cows to be able to generate milk with higher contentof fat, production may have to drop because of the restrictions onthe metabolism of the cows. Thus, while breeders choose theirselection for cows which have greater content of milk fat, theproduction of milk being generated may likewise drop, thereforereversing the option or selection approach which was previouslyconducted to boost it. Hence, tandem selection possesses a greatdisadvantage to other leading forms of artificial selection forvaried traits including index selection and culling, as there is apotential for the last characteristic to disappear as the next traitis being chosen.

SelectionSystem

Theselection system in this process was progeny.Progenytesting is widely used I the cattle and beef industry to help inassessing the selection stock to be involved in breeding. Progenytesting is greatly beneficial when a high accuracy level is requiredfor choosing a sire to be utilized extensively during artificialinsemination. Programs for progeny testing are made up of choosingthe best dams and sires in the population in accordance to the animalmodel assessment. The best two percent of the cows taken from thepopulation are selected as the mothers of the bull and the best bullsthat are progeny tested as selected to generate another breed ofsires. Further, the parents are engaged in mating to complement thedeficiencies of another. The preciseness of assessment of bullmothers is generally about 40 percent as well of sires that generateyoung bulls the precision is greater than 80 percent. Such is not asgreat as the industry wishes for bulls to be utilized duringartificial insemination. To achieve maximum accuracy, the followingbreed of cattle is mated to other cows in the grown for every breedto produce a progeny of at least 60 to 80 percent.

MatingSystem

Themating system used in this activity is the best x worst method. Afterchoosing the females and males that will be utilized to generate thenext breed of animals, the decision that comes after this is which ofthe females and which of the males shall be mated. In making decisionfor mating, the following aspects were taken into account: thecharacteristics to be enhanced, the characteristics that must not bediminished, the inbreeding rate, and the objective of mating.

Amountof Genetic Progress

Progressof cattle breeding was monitored in order to accomplish theobjectives. In this case, the genetic progress was monitored in orderto even out the averageweaning weight in the herd and for commercial purpose of selling thecows and bulls.

Results

Multiple R

0.022097549

R Square

0.000488302

Adjusted R Square

-0.021240214

Standard Error

47.07364589

Observations

48

ANOVA

&nbsp

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

Regression

1

49.79822062

49.79822062

0.02247285

0.881491415

Residual

46

101932.6943

2215.928137

Total

47

101982.4925

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95.0%

Upper 95.0%

Intercept

510.3482047

360.5487822

1.415476157

0.163663995

-215.3988523

1236.095262

-215.3988523

1236.095262

X Variable 1

-0.103201563

0.688425898

-0.149909473

0.881491415

-1.488931025

1.282527898

-1.488931025

1.282527898

Therewas a negative correlation between genetic losses in other traitsduring cattle breeding.

Weaning Weight(lbs)

Average daily gain (feedlot)

Feed Efficiency

Back fat

Weaning weight (lbs)

0.24

-0.15

0.15

Heritability(programmer used)

WeaningWeight (lbs.) = 0.30

of Results

Livestocksector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The report concludedthat unless modifications in the process be rendered, the impact ofdamage thought to be associated to livestock may double as years passand as the demand for meat continues to increase. Manure, if notproperly managed, may result to adverse consequences in theenvironment. Nonetheless, manure likewise is an important source oforganic matter and nutrients when utilized as a fertilizer. Cattlemanure is used to soybeans as well as to other crops including wheat,barley, oats, corn, and sorghum. Alternatives of manure forfertilizers of synthetic type in the production of crops can beproduced significant to the environment as due fossil fuel energy areused for every kilogram of nitrogen in the synthetic manufacture ofnitrogenous fertilizers. American cattle contained in feedlotconditions have fluctuated. From 2002 to 2012, there had been nopertinent upward trend or downward trend in the overall number ofcattle used in the United States on feed for slaughter. Aconcentrated animal feeding operations that releases pollutants isneeded to acquire a permit, which necessitates a plan to handlemanure, nutrient runoff, contaminants, chemicals, and other pursuantof the wastewater act known as the Clean Water Act. Some of theissues raised by CAFO opponents have encompassed the risks of watercontamination because of feedlot runoff, exposures of animals andhuman to toxic substances, soil erosion, and evolution of antibioticresistant type of bacteria as well as an increased contamination inE. Coli. Grazing at low intensities tends to develop a greatenvironment for forbs and native herbs in various world regions,even though cattle are diminishing biodiversity because ofovergrazing. This eventually results to lesser fossil fuel energyusage. A number of microbes present in cattle may bring aboutmethanogenesis which generate methane which, in turn, adds up to theproblem in global warming including impacts on stratospheric andozone water vapor. Mitigations to reduce emissions of methane fromruminant enteric fermentation encompass immunization, geneticselection, rumen defaunation, grazing management, and dietmodification. Overall, this procedure provided greater awarenessabout cattle breeding, the types of selection used, and how mating ofcattle is done to produce the desired traits. If there is anything Iwould like to change about my objectives that would be the usage offeedlot because this tends to cause negative consequence to theenvironment.

References

Maudet,C., Luikart, G. &amp Taberlet, P. (2002). Genetic diversity andassignment tests among seven French cattle breeds based onmicrosatellite DNA analysis.&nbspJournalOf Animal Science, 80 (4), pp.942–950.