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Annotated Bibliography

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5

AnnotatedBibliography

Plutarch&amp Pelling, C. B. R. (2011). Caesar,Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thebook explores the life of Gaius Julius Caesar, as well as, his reign(13 July 100 – 15 March 44 BCE). Julius Caesar is described as thestatesman who conquered the state of Gaul (modern Belgium andFrance). Additionally, he conducted a coup de’ tat in Gaul that ledto death of many people. His political prominence in Rome is believedto originate from the fact that he was born into a patrician family.The book also notes his ability to utilize the Latin language indrafting his books. Julius Caesar used the Populares in politicswhere he associated himself with the citizens. The traditionaloligarchic rulers separated themselves from the poor people, forexample, Caius Marius, Caesar’s father. However, in his finalyears, Marius adopted the ‘populares’style in gaining votes and fulfilling his political aims in thePeople’s Assembly.

JuliusCaesar served in many positions, ranging from serving in the AsiaMinor, a criminal lawyer, a high priest and as consul in the highestoffice of the Roman Republic. The book also points out the electionof Julius Caesar, as an aedilewhoserole was to ensure safety of the “circuses and bread.” Using thepopularesstyle he made sure that the Romans would elect him in to the People’sAssembly. As the author notes in the book, Julius Caesar used thepopularesin his reign, where he fulfilled the rights of the poor people. Afterhis death, the book notes that his will recommended issuance of manygifts to the poor Romans. Despite, Caesar’s dictatorship, hemanaged to help the poor in order to satisfy the Romans. This book isrelevant in supporting the argument that “The Roman attitudestowards the monarchy were able to influence Julius but not Caesars”because it reveals Caesar efforts towards changing Rome in his way ofassociating himself with the poor while conducting his politics.

Fisher,W. (2010). Illustratedhistory of the Roman Empire: From Caesar’s crossing the Rhine toempire.S.l.: Author house.

Thisbook is a reviewed edition of the Historyof the Roman republic byTitus Livius or Livy. Together with the history of the Roman Empire,the book discusses the consulship of Caesar after he was elected inthe Roman Republic. Caesar was a praetor before his election to thehighest office. The optimateswhofollowed the traditional way of leadership were much against thepreators,Julius Caesar included. According to Livy, the optimateshad even accused Ceasar because of participating in the womenceremonies in, pontifexmaximus.

Inconjunction with an optimate,Julius Caesar proposed reorganization of taxes, as well as,prohibition of extortion. He made sure that no optimatesupported the poor consul. Caesar formed the triumvirate,whichLivy refers to as the ‘conspiracy between three leading citizens’consisting of Crassus, Pompey and himself. The triumvirateagreed to work together in making laws that were to be followed bythe citizens. According to Livy, the Romans had a negative attitudetowards the Roman constitution, which allowed dictatorship. JuliusCaesar practiced dictatorship through his regime, and thus the Romansdeveloped bad attitudes towards him, despite his contributions inhelping the poor. Caesar is described as too powerful, to an extent,he used the powers of the oriental kings. This book illustrates howCaesar made his laws tolerable to the Romans, despite thedifficulties in following them. Again, most Romans were not happywith during his regime.

Shakespeare,W., &amp Laurel, A. (2003)., JuliusCaesar Paperback Book,Irvine: Saddleback Educational Pub.

Shakespeareand Laurel describe the reign of Julius Caesar in Rome as accordingto orator Cicero and Plutarch. Cicero in his part describes the lifeof Julius Cicero where he focuses much in his political life. AfterSulla misused his dictatorship, he further wiped out those people whosympathized with Maria, a great opponent of Italy in civil wars.Julius Caesar at tender age was sent away to exile. In exile, hedemonstrated his ruthlessness as a leader in the Asia Minor. Later,after returning to Rome, he was determined to change the RomanRepublic, in which Cicero notes that, he never reformed the RomanRepublic, but, instead destroyed it. Julius Caesar at that tender agehad made several military achievements in conquering some communitieswhile in exile.

Whilein Rome, Julius Caesar also used the post of the aediletogain popularity. At that time, Romans were not happy about as Ciceronotes that few joined to support his populace. Despite the few whowere against him, he consistently employed assets in holding publicshows contests, games, as well as, bribing people. In Spain, Caesarwas elected as the praetor, and in his new role he managed todiminish the problems among the tribes in that country. The oldRomans attitudes towards the monarchy designed the style ofleadership adopted by Caesar. After his election to the RomanRepublic, he removed the taxes charged to farmers, as well as,allocating land to the poor. The primary argument in this caseinvolves confirming whether Caesar style of gaining his populace wasinfluenced by Romans attitudes or not. The book is relevant insupporting the fact that Caesar conducted his politics in accordanceto the Romans’ needs.

Suetonius,.(2004). TheLives of the Caesars.New York: Barnes &amp Noble.

SuetoniusTranquillus has also outlined the lives of the twelve Caesars and forthis case, only the reign of Julius Caesar shall be addressed. Thebook has undergone formatting and reviews, but, the story developedwere originally drafted by Suetonius Tranquillus. The book exploresthe reign of Julius Caesar as a consul, in Rome, the Governor of Gauland his defeats to Germans and Helvetians. Caesar built up hispopularity through bribery and the influence of the wealthy associateconsuls, that is, Pompey and Crassus. The negative Romans attitudestowards the monarchy in the previous years seem to have influencedCaesar in enforcing laws in order to increase his popularity, forexample, terminating the taxes charged on farmers. He also remarrieda woman from a wealthy and influential family, that is, Crassusfamily.

Later,Caesar was elected as the Governor of Gaul after his term in officeas consulwas over. In Gaul, he served for ten years. Shakespeare notes thatdue to the Constitutional Law of Rome that allowed, Caesar used hisart of warfare and experience gained while in Spain to conquer otherstates such as Germany and Helvetia. Romans were up to attack theirenemies and this influenced Caesar in strengthening his dictatorialleadership through conquering the Romans enemies such as Germans andBritish. Later, Caesar was assassinated shortly after his return toRome. The primary argument in this case, involves whether the Romansthemselves contributed to Caesar’s dictatorship. The book seems tohave digressed much to his leadership and thus fairly supports thefact that the Romans attitudes influenced his style of leadership.