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Antioxidant Protection through Better Nutrition

ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION THROUGH BETTER NUTRITION 9

AntioxidantProtection through Better Nutrition

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Antioxidantsare molecules that have the ability to slow or prevent oxidation ofother molecules. According to the free radical theory of aging, agingis caused by accumulation of unrepaired damage on cellular componentsfrom free radical attacks. According to scientist, free radicalhypothesis is oxidative stress. Aging is caused by a shift in thebalance between anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in thepro-oxidative state. It is proven that aging results from theincrease of oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidativestress. The effect of increased oxidative damage affects the genesthat govern developmental processes including aging anddifferentiation. One of the crucial assumptions of the free radicaltheory is that the radicals that enhance the aging process arederived from oxygen. In the past, lipid peroxidation is regarded asthe main process that leads to damage from oxygen radicals. Theoxygen-based theory of aging is similar to the pro-oxidation theoryof aging. Oxidized lipids are the main composition of lipofuscin inmost tissues. Fluidity changes in membranes are influenced byoxidized lipid, and this interferes with vital functions of thetissues and cells such as selective permeability and signaltransduction. Another theory implies that age related pathologiesare because of increased lysosomal activities because of lysosomalmembrane destabilization.Many researchers have found out that mostof the antioxidant molecules or antioxidant enzymes decreases becauseof aging. Aging is associated with antioxidant decrease and agedependent increases in lipid peroxidation. According to scientist,free radical hypothesis is oxidative stress. . The relevantinteractions between these antioxidants affect the enzymes andmetabolite systems. For the antioxidant metabolites, thecontribution by these enzymes to defense by antioxidant is hard toseparate from each other. The oxygen-based theory of aging is similarto the pro-oxidation theory of aging. Aging is caused by a shift inthe balance between anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in thepro-oxidative state. It is proven that aging results from theincrease of oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidativestress. The effect of increased oxidative damage affects the genesthat govern developmental processes including aging anddifferentiation. Although laboratory reports have pointed out thatthe antioxidants do not have an impact on any chronicle disease,people who have an adequate level of antioxidants are lee affected bythe chronic diseases. Many researchers have found out that most ofthe antioxidant molecules or antioxidant enzymes decreases because ofaging. Aging is associated with antioxidant decrease and agedependent increases in lipid peroxidation. According to scientist,free radical hypothesis is oxidative stress (Zoumbaris, 2009).

Theimpacts of aging on tissue GSH is controversial because some researchreports substantial decrease in old age while others report nochange. Concentrations of GSH decreased because of age in the gastricmucosa due to age, but GSH in the plasma decreased due to livercirrhosis. Antioxidants are the enzyme and nutrients that help inpreventing and repair body tissues. They do this by preventing orslowing the impacts of free radicals that start oxidation. Freeradicals do not only affect the skin but may lead to heart diseasesand cancer. . The relevant interactions between these antioxidantsaffect the enzymes and metabolite systems. For the antioxidantmetabolites, the contribution by these enzymes to defense byantioxidant is hard to separate from each other. The oxygen-basedtheory of aging is similar to the pro-oxidation theory of aging.Antioxidants can be found in many foods such as lutein,beta-carotene, selenium, and vitamin C, A and E. these are found infruits, vegetables, poultry, fish, and grains. Antioxidants can helpthe skin from damaging effects of the sun rays. The antioxidantsprotect the skin from the inside out unlike the sunscreen andmoisturizers that protect the outside. Vitamin C, E and A help inskin care and fortify cells against free radicals. Antioxidants thatprevent cell damage and enhance cell development are helpful inanti-aging regimen. Aging is caused by a shift in the balance betweenanti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in the pro-oxidativestate. It is proven that aging results from the increase ofoxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidative stress. Theeffect of increased oxidative damage affects the genes that governdevelopmental processes including aging and differentiation. Manyresearchers have found out that most of the antioxidant molecules orantioxidant enzymes decreases because of aging. Aging is associatedwith antioxidant decrease and age dependent increases in lipidperoxidation. According to scientist, free radical hypothesis isoxidative stress. Aging is caused by a shift in the balance betweenanti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in the pro-oxidativestate. It is proven that aging results from the increase ofoxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidative stress(Costanzo, 2010).

Antioxidantsare very crucial in the aging of a person. A person should ensurethat he has an adequate supply of antioxidant to boost the immunesystem. There are very many sources of antioxidants, but theireffects on the human body differ. Oxidants are classified into groupsdepending on if they dissolve in lipids or water. Antioxidants thatare soluble in water are called hydrophilic while those that aresoluble in lipids are called lipophilic. Hydrophilic combine withoxidants in the blood plasma and cell cytosol, while lipophilicprotects membrane of the cell from lipid peroxidation. The compoundsare synthesized by the body or sourced from the diet. Some oxidantsmay be found in an organism, and these are very important inpathogens. The relevant interactions between these antioxidantsaffect the enzymes and metabolite systems. For the antioxidantmetabolites, the contribution by these enzymes to defense byantioxidant is hard to separate from each other. The oxygen-basedtheory of aging is similar to the pro-oxidation theory of aging.Oxidized lipids are the main composition of lipofuscin in mosttissues. Fluidity changes in membranes are influenced by oxidizedlipid, and this interferes with vital functions of the tissues andcells such as selective permeability and signal transduction. Thelevel of protection and repair provided by the antioxidants depend onconcentration, status and reactivity. Most of these compounds help inoxidant defense through chelating transitions metals, and protectthem from catalyzing free radical production in the cells (Ganong,2005).

Manycommon foods are very good source of antioxidants, but theirconcentration sources differ a lot. Spices, cocoa, essential oils andherbs, are rich sources of plant antioxidants, but their availabilitydoes not provide an adequate amount. The most common highantioxidants, sources, are cinnamon, cloves, turmeric, oregano,curry, ginger, garlic among others. Herbs that are beneficial ofantioxidants are sage, tarragon, thyme, oregano and dill weed. Fruitsthat are dried are better sources of antioxidants because the waterratio has been reduced making the antioxidants higher. The mostcrucial fruits are apples, pears, peaches, plums, dates and figs. Pigmented fruits like plums, blueberries, cranberries, strawberries,figs among others, also have very high levels of antioxidants. Uricacid is the highest antioxidant concentration in human blood cells.Uric acid is an antioxidant produced by enzyme xanthine oxidase fromxanthine and is a product of purine metabolism. Researchers havefound out that urate is an antioxidant because it mitigates oxidativestress caused by hypoxia (Alberts, 2002).

Aswith the case of the chemical antioxidants, cells and tissues areprotected against oxidative by an interacting antioxidant enzymesnetwork. The superoxide produced by processes like oxidativephosphorylation is metabolized to hydrogen peroxide and furtherhydrated to give water. The detoxification pathway is because ofmultiple enzymes, with dismutase catalyzing the first step and latercatalyses and various perixodases removing hydrogen peroxide. For theantioxidant metabolites, the contribution by these enzymes to defenseby antioxidant is hard to separate from each other. The oxygen-basedtheory of aging is similar to the pro-oxidation theory of aging.Oxidized lipids are the main composition of lipofuscin in mosttissues. Fluidity changes in membranes are influenced by oxidizedlipid, and this interferes with vital functions of the tissues andcells such as selective permeability and signal transduction. Another theory implies that age related pathologies are because ofincreased lysosomal activities because of lysosomal membranedestabilization. Many researchers have found out that most of theantioxidant molecules or antioxidant enzymes decreases because ofaging. Aging is associated with antioxidant decrease and agedependent increases in lipid peroxidation. According to scientist,free radical hypothesis is oxidative stress. Antioxidants aremolecules that have the ability to slow or prevent oxidation of othermolecules. According to the free radical theory of aging, aging iscaused by accumulation of unrepaired damage on cellular componentsfrom free radical attacks (Darby, 2000).

Peoplewho eat vegetables and fruits have a lower risk of heart diseases andskin changes. It is believed that the oxidation of lipoprotein in theblood contributes to heart diseases. Since vegetables and fruits aregood antioxidants sources, they lower the risk of cancer. Althoughlaboratory reports have pointed out that the antioxidants do not havean impact on any chronicle disease, people who have an adequate levelof antioxidants are lee affected by the chronic diseases. Manyresearchers have found out that most of the antioxidant molecules orantioxidant enzymes decreases because of aging. Aging is associatedwith antioxidant decrease and age dependent increases in lipidperoxidation. According to scientist, free radical hypothesis isoxidative stress. Aging is caused by a shift in the balance betweenanti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in the pro-oxidativestate. It is proven that aging results from the increase ofoxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidative stress. Theeffect of increased oxidative damage affects the genes that governdevelopmental processes including aging and differentiation.

Manyresearchers have found out that most of the antioxidant molecules orantioxidant enzymes decreases because of aging. Aging is associatedwith antioxidant decrease and age dependent increases in lipidperoxidation. According to scientist, free radical hypothesis isoxidative stress. Aging is caused by a shift in the balance betweenanti-oxidative and pro-oxidative processes in the pro-oxidativestate. It is proven that aging results from the increase ofoxidative damage to proteins, lipids, or DNA or oxidative stress. Theeffect of increased oxidative damage affects the genes that governdevelopmental processes including aging and differentiation. Theoxygen-based theory of aging is similar to the pro-oxidation theoryof aging. Antioxidants are molecules that have the ability to slow orprevent oxidation of other molecules. According to the free radicaltheory of aging, aging is caused by accumulation of unrepaired damageon cellular components from free radical attacks. Oxidized lipidsare the main composition of lipofuscin in most tissues. Fluiditychanges in membranes are influenced by oxidized lipid, and thisinterferes with vital functions of the tissues and cells such asselective permeability and signal transduction. Another theoryimplies that age related pathologies are because of increasedlysosomal activities because of lysosomal membrane destabilization. Many researchers have found out that most of the antioxidantmolecules or antioxidant enzymes decreases because of aging. Agingis associated with antioxidant decrease and age dependent increasesin lipid peroxidation. According to scientist, free radicalhypothesis is oxidative stress (Haugen, 2012).

Conclusion

Antioxidantsare very important in the physiological development of the body.Human beings should take adequate amount of antioxidant foodsbecause they play a significant role. The nutrients play a crucialrole of cell development and protecting the cells from attacks.Antioxidants are molecules that have the ability to slow or preventoxidation of other molecules. According to the free radical theory ofaging, aging is caused by accumulation of unrepaired damage oncellular components from free radical attacks.

References

Alberts,B. (2002). Molecularbiology of the cell(4th ed.). New York: Garland Science.

Costanzo,L. S. (2010). Physiology(4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.

Darby,C. (2000). Nutrition&amp health.St. Louis, Mo.: Milliken Pub. Co..

Ganong,W. F. (2005). Reviewof medical physiology(22nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Haugen,D. M. (2012). Nutrition.Detroit: Greenhaven Press/Gale Cengage Learning.

Insel,P. M., Turner, R. E., &amp Ross, D. (2007). Nutrition(3rd ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Pollard,T. D., Earnshaw, W. C., &amp Schwartz, J. (2008). Cellbiology(2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

Zoumbaris,S. K. (2009). Nutrition.Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.