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Assessing Central Tendency and Descriptive Statistics


AssessingCentral Tendency and Descriptive Statistics

AssessingCentral Tendency and Descriptive Statistics in the article titledSocial support and Screening of Breast Cancer for rural women inMalaysia

Inthe study Socialsupport and Screening of Breast Cancer for rural women in Malaysia,the researcher cross-examined emotional support influence relating tobreast cancer screening test in women. Research that existedpreviously shows that cervical cancer is a great hindrance to womenin Malaysia. The study itself was aimed to measure the prevalence ofcervical cancer and the uptake of Pap smears screening for ruralwomen in Malaysia. The study is appropriate since it shows theexisting cases and figures that needs awareness

Thestudy investigated a total of 1,000 households sampling randomly.Women between the age gaps of 20-64 were interviewed andcross-examined using structured questionnaires. Meanwhile, Inclusionof other criteria besides age was put in place. For instance,residing in the village for a period of more than 6 months,availability at the time of visit, and agreeing to participate in thestudy. Women with psychiatric cases were excluded the study. The rateof response was perfect, since the study was conducted in theirhomes. In the same regard, visits were repeated until the women wereavailable. The questionnaires used were modified from a previouspretested community programme for rural residents in Central Perak.Drawing conclusion from previous studies, there were four variablesthat were put into consideration as predictors of screening ofcervical cancer uptake (Elpernet al., 2009).

Inaddition, self reporting questionnaire was included in order togenerate data regarding the screening of cancer tests. In a morespecific scenario, there were three types of the screening test thatwere noted: Cervical Cancer Screening, Breast Self Examination (BSE),and clinical study for breast cancer (BCCE). The economic and socialbackgrounds were noted. To gauge the level of social support,Duke-UNC-11 was used. The analysis was done using Logistic models. Inaddition, this model offered great support to the researchhypothesis. For example, there is a strong relationship between PapScreening and Social Support. Nevertheless, the connection betweensocial support and breast examination was not established well.However, emotional support was seen to play a pivotal role inscreening of cervical cancer and detection. The researcher furtherasserts that the nursing practice must include all the actions thatencourage social ties for women in Malaysia.

Measureof Central Tendency

Inthe statistic, measure of central tendency presents an average valueof a distribution that represents the middle well. It is alsoreferred to as centrality. There are three types of central tendency:Mean, Median and Mode. In the study, Data was recorded and analyzedusing Statistical Package for Window version. Categorical data wasdescribed in terms of percentages and rates (Keller,2006).

Dataintervals were described using median and mean values. Regressionanalysis was further used to identify the uptake of Pap smearscreening predictors. Furthermore, a p-value of &lt0.05 waspresented as a significant difference in the two variables. Variableshaving p&lt0.5 on univariate analysis was included in themultivariate analysis to identify the strongest screening of cervicalcancer predictors and solve the confounding factors.MedianValues-Itis the most common central tendency mode. In simple terms, it issumming the numbers and dividing by the number of the total numbersadded.MeanValues-Medianis another commonly used measure of central tendency. Median is justbut the midpoint of any given distribution (Keller,2006).

CentralTendency and Descriptive Statistics

Cancerof the cervix is among the most common cancer in women, in the childbearing age. More specifically, in Malaysia it is the most commoncancer among women. From 1980 to the present day, global cases ofcervical cancer have increased from 378 to 454 thousands coupled witha 0.6% increase annually. Most of the burden associated with cervicalcancer is common in the developing countries of the world accountingto 13 percent of all the cancers common in women. The rate ofmortality of cervical cancer has increased from 174 thousand deathsin 1980 to 200 thousand deaths by 2010 coupled with 0.46% increaseannually. Mortality rate in Southern parts of Asia is higher than inNorth America, Australia and Western Europe (Fitch&amp Kathryn, 2001).

Appropriatenessor Inappropriateness of the Study

Thestudy is appropriate since it has statistical power. The effectcaused by study intervention is the power`s ability, given that theresult is inexistence. The probability of this study that the nullhypothesis is rejected shows that the results do not differ from whatmight have occurred by chance. The study is appropriate since it candetect the true difference between different groups. Research thatexisted previously shows that cervical cancer is a great hindrance towomen in Malaysia. The study itself was aimed to measure theprevalence of cervical cancer and the uptake of Pap smears screeningfor rural women in Malaysia. The study is appropriate since it showsthe existing cases and figures that needs awareness.

HowMeasure of central Tendency were met

Measureof central tendency provides a set of values. It revolves aroundvalue that values are grouped.In the research study, measures of central tendency were met. The twogeneral measures of central tendency in the study are median and meanvalues they are used to describing Data intervals. In the article,the measure of central tendency was met by taking a closer look atthe inclusion of women years. For example, the sample size was takenfrom women aged &gt40 years. Mean age was calculated to be 45.2 ±12.2 years range between 20 and 64 years. The ethnic distribution ofthose interviewed was reflective of the total distribution of thepopulation in Northern Malaysia. A large chunk of them was Malaysianwith 80.8 percent of them having secondary education. Those with alevel higher than secondary education were 51.5 percent, 62.7 percentwere working while the married with spouses were 80.7 percent. Morethan half of the total women had more than four children and only15.7 percent had no children. Further, 10.2 percent were using afamily planning method such as oral contraceptive or condoms duringthe time of the study (Bickel,2003).

Majorityof interviewed respondents had never had a Pap smear with additional30 percent never heard of Pap Screening. This in the study, measuresof central tendency were met through evaluation, study and analysisof data collected. In addition, data was recorded and analyzed usingStatistical Package for Window version. Categorical data wasdescribed in terms of percentages and rates. Data intervals weredescribed using median and mean values. Regression analysis wasfurther used to identify the uptake of Pap smear screening predictors(Tal&amp Joseph, 2001).

Levelsof Measurement in the Study

Empiricalresearch statistics needs both reliable and accurate measures. Datacollection takes many forms in statistics and social sciences itincludes measurement of opinions, perception, cognition, and othermeasurements that can directly be measured. Knowing the level ofmeasurements in this research is important in data interpretation.For example, when a measure is nominal, then the values are arrays oflonger names. In this research, it was necessary to make a decisionon what statistical analysis is appropriate on the values assigned.If, for instance, the measure is nominal then the data would never beaveraged. In the study, ordinal measurement is used since theattributes are ordered in ranks. For example, the sample size wastaken from women aged &gt40 years. Mean age was calculated to be45.2 ± 12.2 years range between 20 and 64 years. The above evidenceis a nominal level of measurement (Humphreyet al, 2013).

Inappropriatenessof Data Display

Instatistics, data is displayed quantitatively to summarize theavailable data by use of graphical representations. Graphs are eitherqualitative or quantitative. For example, the study is a quantitativeone since values are taken. The age group and number with cervicalcancer and those without are recorded,, marital information. In otherwords, the basic quantitative information is recorded but notgraphed. Data has not been appropriately displayed. For example, onlytables are used in the case study. It fails to brings authenticity indata presentation and display (Humphreyet al, 2013).

DataDisplay Strengths and Weaknesses and Appropriateness

Thestudy is very week in data display by failing to incorporate thelikes of bar graphs and histogram to add value to the tables that areprovided. Conversely, appropriateness of data display is sound sincethe available data can be used for further research and also indrawing bar graphs and histograms. The cross-sectional study was madein rural district of Malaysia (Weiss,2002).


Assessmentof central tendency and descriptive statistics are essential in anystatistical work.Research that existed previously shows that cervical cancer is agreat hindrance to women in Malaysia. The study itself was aimed atmeasuring the prevalence of cervical cancer and the uptake of Papsmears screening for rural women in Malaysia. The study isappropriate since it shows the existing cases and figures that needsawareness.In clinical medicine, centraltendency presents the average value of a distribution that representsthe middle well. It is also referred to as centrality. There arethree types of central tendency: Mean, Median and Mode. DescriptiveStatistics isstatistics that converts available data into apicture of information to give a better understanding. When used,terms like mode, median, standard deviation and mean are used topresent an analysis of information. A self reporting questionnairewas incorporated in order to generate data regarding the screening ofcancer tests. In a more specific scenario, there were three types ofthe screening test that were noted: Cervical Cancer Screening, BreastSelf Examination (BSE), and clinical examination for breast cancer(BCCE).

Theeconomic and social backgrounds were noted. To gauge the level ofsocial support, Duke-UNC-11 was used. The analysis was performedusing Logistic models. In addition, this model offered great supportto the research hypothesis. For example, there is a strongrelationship between Pap Screening and Social Support. The researchhas both strengths and weaknesses. Strengths lay in the availabledata and thus can be used for further research in future.


Bickel,R., D. (2003). Robust and Efficient Estimation of the Mode ofContinuous Data: The Mode as a Viable Measure of Central Tendency.Journalof Statistical Computation and Simulation 73(12),899-912.

Elpern,H., E., Killeen, K., Ketchem, A., Wiley, A., Patel, G., &ampLateef., O. (2009). Reducing Use of Indwelling Urinary Catheters andAssociated Urinary Tract Infections. AmericanJournal of Critical Care 18(6),535-41.

Fitch,&amp Kathryn. (2001). TheRand/UCLA Appropriateness Method User`s Manual.Santa Monica: Rand.

Humphrey,B., P., Taylor, S., &amp Mittag, K. C. (2013). .&quotDeveloping Consistency in the Terminology and Display of BarGraphs and Histograms.&quot Teaching Statistics.n/a.

Keller,K., D. (2006).The Tao of Statistics: A Path to Understanding (with No Math). .Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, .

Tal,J. &amp Joseph, K.. (2001). Readingbetween the Numbers: Statistical Thinking in Everyday Life.New York: McGraw-Hill, .

Weiss,&amp A., N. (2002.). IntroductoryStatistics. Boston:Addison-Wesley.