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Breast cancer



Breastcancer has become a major threat to the human life. There are severalfactors that contribute to breast cancer. The main causes of breastcancer are the genetic mutation of genes and also inheritance.However, if necessary measures may be observed at the appropriatetime, the cases of breast cancer can be greatly reduced. The publicshould be advised to live a healthy life so as to live cancer freelife.


Tumor-suppressorgenes play an important role in the human body. As a result, they mayrepress or dampen the regulation of the circulation of the cells.They also promote apoptosis and at times they can perform both.Tumor-suppressor genes have different functions. These functions maybe classified into several categories. The repression types of genesplay a very essential role in ensuring a continuous cell cycle. Incase, this gene, fail to be expressed the cell circulation may not beefficient. The Tumor-suppressor genes also take the responsibility ofcoupling cell cycle into DNA damage. If at all there is a damaged DNAin a particular cell, the cell should not, therefore, be divided(Torosian, 2002).

Thetumor-suppressor genes have some proteins that are involved in theadhesion of cells. The cell adhesion prevents the dispersal of tumorcells. They also prevent the contact inhibition block loss as well asinhibiting metastasis. The DNA repair proteins may be classified astumor suppressors also. The mutation in their respective genesincreases the risk of suffering from cancer (Saunder &amp Jassal,2009).

Proto-oncogenesgenes play a vital role in the embryogenesis. It is because they wereinvolved in the stimulation of proliferation and cell growth in thecourse of the development of an organism. Proto-oncogenes also play arole of regulating the differentiation of cells. However, theregulation was taking place in a negative perspective. The activitiesof proto-oncogenes can be turned off immediately the processes ofgrowth they were regulating are complete. If the proto-oncogeneactivity may remain high or they may undergo a reactivation in aninappropriate way may lead to the occurrence of cancer in the latterdays (Winchester, 2006).

Therisk towards breast and also ovarian cancers in women can increasedue to the inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. They are alsolinked with risks of causing other types of cancer. The breast cancercases that have been recorded indicate that 20 percent of is as aresult of BRCA2 and BRCA1. that has been associatedwith BRCA1 and BRCA2 develops at a young age. It is the opposite ofsporadic breast cancer which develop at older cases (Torosian, 2002).

Thecondition of HBOC is most of the cases inherited. It has the meaningthat the risk towards cancer is inherited across the generations inthe same family. HBOC has been associated with two genes however,there are several other genes have been associated with breastcancer. It includes the mutation in the suppression gene. Thealteration in BRCA1 and also BRCA2 causes an increased risk to awoman. Male people with gene mutations can also have an increasedrisk in breast cancer as well as the prostate cancer. Nevertheless,not all cases of families who have breast or ovarian cancer recordmutations in BRCA2 or BRCA1 (Saunder &amp Jassal, 2009).

Thereare several risks that have been mentioned to be associated withcancer. The first is by the virtue of being a woman. The fact thatone is a woman forms the biggest risk of suffering from cancer. Thelargest percentage of the breast cancer that has been recorded isassociated to women. A person`s age is also a determinant in the riskthat a person has towards cancer. Similar to other medical problemsthe risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer increases with theincrease in the age of the person (Peacock, 2001).

Thehistory of the family where one originates from acts as anotherdeterminant of the percentage of risk that one has towards beingdiagnosed with breast cancer. When relatives of a woman have beendiagnosed with breast cancer there are higher risks that a woman ofsuch lineage will also diagnose with cancer. A woman whose firstdegree relatives have diagnosed with breast cancer has a doubledprobability of being diagnosed. Genetics also forms a risk in beingdiagnosed with breast cancer. Research has indicated thatapproximately five to 10% of the breast cancer cases are hereditary.It is caused by the passage of abnormal genes from the parent to thechild (Hunt &amp University of Texas M.D, 2008).

Thegenetic testing against BRCA has both the advantages as well as thedisadvantages that are associated with it. The pros of the BRCAgenetic testing differ from one person to the other. The genetictesting plays a vital role of giving an individual much informationconcerning his or her cancer risk. After an individual has beentested and known his or her status one can make his or her lifestyleand medical choices accordingly. The options may entail frequentscreenings for cancer or formulating steps that would reduce the riskof an individual. Another advantage of carrying out genetic testingis because an individual may get an explanation as to why thatperson, as well as other members of the society, has been diagnosedwith cancer in the past. It would also help that person with usefulinformation that would offer some solution to solve or reduce therisk of breast cancer (Winchester, 2006).

However,there are also several disadvantages that are associated withcarrying out genetic testing. It is of importance for every person toput into consideration some of the available factors that may posenegative effects to him or her before carrying out a BRCA genetictesting. One of the disadvantages of carrying out the genetic testingis that it may pose emotions such as anger, depression or anxiety toan individual if the results may turn out to be positive. On theother hand, if the results may be negative, one may be guilty ofescaping the disease that affected his or her loved one. That personmay obtain an untrue sense of security that he or she has no chanceof being diagnosed with cancer however he or she could be could bepossessing same risks as other individuals (Torosian, 2002).

Itis advisable for every family to carry out genetic testingirrespective of the breast cancer history of their family. It isbecause for a person to be diagnosed with breast cancer it is notnecessarily that the person will inherit from the parents. The testwill also help the members of the family who are unknowinglysuffering from breast cancer to get the necessary treatment beforethe conditions become extreme. The family will also get theopportunity of gaining measures that would assist them in preventingthemselves from being diagnosed with cancer.

Therehave been numerous critiques concerning the double mastectomy. Dr.Isabelle Bedrosian who is surgical oncologist, call for overkill ofthis approach since there is no available proofs that it helps womenwho had breast cancer in one breast. However, the Angelina Jolie’sdecision was accepted by many experts who have revealed themselves tothe public claiming that she made a smart choice. According to Dr.Eric winer, Jolie’s decision is a situation that is unique. Hefurther stated that most professionals would claim that if a womanmakes a decision of having both of her breasts removed, this is areasonable pretty thing. On the other hand, Angelina Jolie’s doctorestimated a fall in her cancer risks from eighty-seven percent tojust five percent. By the virtue of the fact that Jolie’s risk ofbeing diagnosed with breast cancer reduced with such a great margin,it was, therefore, justifiable carrying out a double mastectomy. Thedouble mastectomy cannot be, therefore, considered extreme in Jolie’scase (Torosian, 2002).

Itis advisable to prevent the diagnosis of cancer. There should beencouragement towards women to eat healthy food. A diet that is highin vegetables is advisable. They are also advised to take many fruitsas well as avoiding sugary drinks. Women are advised to keepthemselves physically active. The research indicates that there is a10% reduction in the risk of breast cancer when a person is fitphysically. Minimal or no alcohol is advised to women who areassociated with the case of breast cancer. Those with children areadvised to breast feed them on a long time basis. It reduces the riskof the women towards developing breast cancer. Women should onregular basis visit the health centers to get cancer screeningservices. They should as well follow the doctors’ recommendations(Peacock, 2001).

Thereare several ways of treating breast cancer. The breast cancer that aperson is suffering from is the determinant of the method to be usedto treat the diagnosis. People suffering from this diagnosis aretreatment in more than one way. The doctor may recommend that surgeryneed to be performed to the patient. In this operation, the doctorcuts off the tissues of cancer. Chemotherapy is another method oftreating cancer. In this method, the cancer cells are killed by theuse of special medicine. Hormonal therapy can also apply in thetreatment of cancer. This process makes the use of blocking thecancer cells from the hormones they depend on so that they can grow.Biological therapy is another method used in the treatment of cancer.It helps the body’s immune system to be able to fight cancer cells.


Breastcancer is a challenge in the society. Therefore, the members of thesociety should be educated on the different ways they can preventthemselves from being diagnosed with cancer. They should as well gainknowledge in the ways to treat this menace. It is the role of thegovernments to ensure that the public gets a free cancer screening ona regular basis.


Hunt,K. K., &amp University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.(2008).&nbspBreastcancer.New York: Springer.

Peacock,J. (2001).&nbspBreastcancer.Mankato, Minn: LifeMatters.

Saunders,C., &amp Jassal, S. (2009).&nbspBreastcancer.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Silva,O. E., &amp Zurrida, S. (2005).&nbspBreastcancer: A practical guide.Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders.

Torosian,M. H. (2002).&nbspBreastcancer: A guide to detection and multidisciplinary therapy.Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Winchester,D. J. (2006).&nbspBreastcancer.Hamilton: Decker.