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Car Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Green Turbine Abstract

CarExhaust Heat Recovery System Using Green Turbine

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Abstract

Alot of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately25%, and most of energy wasted is through heat or exhaust. There isan increased desire to re use this exhaust and improve the efficiencyof car engines with a purpose of reducing its consumption of fuel andminimize harmful green house gases emitted to the environment. Thepurpose of this paper is to examine how wasted energy can be reusedor recovered in the form of electricity to power the electricalcomponents of a vehicle by use of green turbine technology. Greenturbine will be analyzed as possible solution to recycle lost energyto improve the overall car energy efficiency.

Thestudy will entail carrying out the qualitative research and to seekinformation on the exhaust heat recovery system by use of greenturbine. Experiment on three various models of the generators will becarried out by fitting them to three cars but of the same model andthe results will be recorded on a table to be analyzed. This paperconcludes that the use of green turbine can be the best method ofsolving the energy efficiency in the world through utilization ofwaste steam to generate electricity.

Backgroundinformation

Withglobal reserves for fuels getting exhausted and environmentalpollution increasing, the automotive industry are always beensearching for the methods to ensure the cars uses the fuelefficiently and reduce the amount of CO2 (Green&amp Duyar, 1998).Consequently, they have identified the wasted energy in the carexhaust. They have come up with new technologies which reuse theexhaust from cars before it exits the vehicle and helps declines theemission resulting from cars which helps avert air pollution. Thetechnology which is entailed in the maximization of a vehicle exhaustis termed as exhaust heat recovery and the recirculation (Wolfarth,2013).It exists many ways of using the exhaust to improve fuel efficiency,for instance, warming the engine cooler. It can also be used for airconditioning during cold weather and the car’s exhaust can also beused to convert to electricity (Green&amp Duyar, 1998).

Exhaustheat recovery is a term used to refer to process through which theheat energy from the exhaust is re-used both in the car and theengine. The best method used to solve the problems on the fuelconsumption and pollution of environment is the use of Green Turbinetechnology (Talabǎ&amp Roche, 2004).This technology uses the waste steam from the vehicle and converts itto electricity. In addition, it has no harm on the environment. Thusit is fuel efficient and environmental friendly (Green&amp Duyar, 1998).

LiteratureReview

Asnoted by Cohen&amp Rogers (1951), greenturbine is a small turbo generator which drives waste steam andconverts its heat to electricity. Hence it is excellent in theapplications of choices requiring both electricity and heat since thepart of the energy which is not converted into electricity is usedfor cooling or heating. It is produced by a company called GreenTurbine TM and it has very high efficiency since it uses steam andproduces an output of 1-15kW of electricity and such small turbinesnever existed till presently. It requires the following to workefficiently condenser or plate heat exchanger, vacuum pump(condensate pump), over speed protector device, rectifier andinverter (Wolfarth,2013).

Thisdevise converts heat into electricity. Governments worldwide arecurrently enacting new rules and regulation, charges for the ‘’gogreen’’ and tax benefits. Through such benefits or incentivesintroduction automotive companies are entailed to participate andcontribute to the reduction of global CO2 emission and energyconsumption (TalabaÌŒ&amp Roche, 2004).For instance, the US government has set it goals where it aims atreducing the amount of green house gases by 80 percent prior to 2050.In addition, UK aims at reduce its carbon emission by 60 percentprior to 2050 and deems to evaluate its quest by 2020 (Green,2006).

Theincorporation of green turbine will ensure such intentions are fullyachieved. Globally, consumers and producers are still looking for thesustainable energy alternatives in addition to efficiently using theavailable energy in a manner which doesn’t bring adverse effects tothe environment (Wolfarth,2013).

Thesteam during the turbine is gotten from any fuel for instanceinternal combustion engines its general efficiency. This enables thegreen turbine to be suitable for the current wasted car exhaust heat(Cohen &amp Rogers, 1951). As combustion takes place externally, thecombustion can be controlled hence its emission to a high degree as aresult leading to CO2 reduction and a cleaner environment (Green,2006).

Survey

Thispaper has mainly used the survey part in portraying the green turbinegenerators as the best type of generator for generating theelectricity through waste heat from the vehicles. A survey has beeni-used in explaining what is the green turbine generator, how to useit, its composition, types of models or specifications and itsefficiency as compared to other types of generates in the energyefficiency of vehicles.

Problemstatement

Theworld is faced with dwindling energy sources to fuel the vehicles andalso to reduce the pollution of the environment. This research paperhas come up with the solution to those problems by use of the GreenTurbine technology which recycles the waste exhaust or heat from carsand converts it to electricity which in turn improves the energyefficiency and eliminates the emission of carbon dioxide and othergreen house gases to the environment.

Hypothesis

  1. The exhaust heat from cars can be recycled and used to generate electricity used again in the car.

  2. The exhaust from cars is recycled by green turbine to reduce environmental pollution.

  3. The exhaust recovery system leads to energy efficiency.

Methodology

Thepurpose of this section is to determine how the car exhaust recoverysystem can be used in green turbine to convert it to electricity andminimize the pollution of the environment.The purposes of thischapter includes the description of research methodology explainingthe sample selection describing the procedure used ininstrumentation design and data collection and explanation ofprocedures used in data analysis.

Researchmethodology

Inthis study, a qualitative research methodology will be used. Inaddition a sample survey, questionnaires and interviews will beadministered to a selected sample of individuals in automotiveindustry especially the owners of cars or drivers concerning theirtake on the use of green turbines application on the energyefficiency in relation to cost of energy fuel.

Sample

Inthis study, a sample of stakeholders in the motor vehicle industrywill be sampled and a random sampling will be used to get theiropinions on the use of green turbine to improve energy efficiency andreduce pollution.

Instrumentation

Thesurveys used in this study examine two purposes. The first purpose isto address the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the use of greenturbine to improve energy efficiency. The second purpose was tocollect additional not utilized in this study. The survey instrumentwas divided into three parts.

Partone: the motor vehicle stakeholders. This will determine the costthey have incurred as a result of inefficiency. Factors like profitmargin or payback, carbon dioxide emission, quantity of fuel inrelation to use of green turbine and advantages of green turbinesover any other available turbines will be surveyed in terms of thefollowing

  1. Operation

  2. Vibration

  3. Paybacks and cost

  4. If there is other readily available generators

  5. Carbon emission

  6. design

Parttwo deals with the demographic information. In this part the datawill be collected for individuals who will respond to survey. Theperceptions will be measured through gender, age, mode of car,maintenance cost and the period on the motor vehicle industry.

Partthree will determine the pressing issues in the automotive industry.The questionnaire will be administered and the respondents will filltheir perceptions.

Datacollection

Thequestionnaire will be mailed to the respondents and then after onemonth a follow up letter will again be mailed to remind them to windup filling questionnaires.

Methodof analysis

Thiswill be aimed at looking how surveys are correct and complete, codingthem and keying. In addition, the data will be described based on the3 parts above. The incomplete surveys will be discarded and notanalyzed. Tables and descriptive statistics will be used to presentthe data.

Theoreticalbackground

Greenturbine specifications

Greenturbine of 2.5kW is approximately 9 kilogram and has a length of 25cmand diameter of 19 centimeters. It generates pressure of steam of 5.2bars and the pressure of the condenser is 0.1 bars. So far thesmallest green turbine designed generates 1kW and the largest sizedelivers 15Kw. They delivers 3 phase AC, and a frequency of 2000Hz.The power is fed after rectification to DC/AC converter whichconverts it to a desired output (Talabǎ &amp Roche, 2004).

15Kwgreen turbine

Thegreen turbine is light, compact size and has silent operation. Ituses modern materials and design based on the De Laval and Curtisstechniques and has a maximum efficiency with a highest speed of 30000revolutions per minute. The generated steam is fed into jet tubesand converted to electricity at a high speed. The heat which remainsis pumped back again to the condenser or boiler which provides steamcircuit or feed water. The heat emitted in the condenser can be usedfor cooling or heating purposes (Jordan, 1989).

Itcaptures waste heat from an engine through vacuum sealed boilerinserted in the heat source to generate steam which spins the turbineto generate electric power. The modern designs don’t use the guideplates and gears hence it is more reliable and efficient. The lossesare again minimized by use of a near vacuum for the generators andthe turbine wheels.

Allthe electrical components and connections are at the bottom keepingmaintenance&nbspcosts low. Also the cost of power&nbspfrom theWindpipe&nbspis low. Above 14 mph, the technology is expected toproduce energy from 3 to 10 times cheaper than turbines, from $3.30per MWh to $ 0.3 per MWh, compared to the $10 per MWh of modernturbine wind towers (Green,2006).Wasteheat recoveryrefersto heat generated by vehicles, electrical equipment, machines andindustrial processes and this heat generated has no usefulness and isregarded as waste. Transport fuel burning is the main contributor ofwaste heat among all sources. To avoid its waste it is worth reusingit by conversion to an extra energy source that aids in theimprovement of an application. Hence, this will leads to saving offuel and energy in the prospects of benefiting our environment(Green,2006).

Savingthe energy and fuel is the main benefit of the waste heat recoveryand this is the main motivation for automotive companies to focus oninvesting in equipment to reuse the waste energy. Apart from thereduction in use of fuel and energy, the green turbine also causesminimal emission of pollutants including carbon II oxide, sulphur IVoxide and hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide to our environment.

Greenturbine is the sole or the only application in the world whichconverts waste heat of low temperature (130 degrees Celsius or more)to electricity. If the excess heat is emitted, the efficiency of theapplication will tend to decrease to below 100 percent. For instance,the heat wasted from a car engine during winter is utilized for itsradiator and its efficient increases. During summer period, this heatis released through the car radiator which again leads to reductionof efficiency. The efficiency decreases in a car not unless a methodis designed to use the wasted heat energy for instance used in theair conditioning of the car and other operations.

Thecar exhaust usually has low temperature and as a result it is hard toconvert it into electricity and the main option is to utilize it forheating water or heating space. At a temperature of 130 degrees ormore, the steam turbine like the green turbine can be used togenerate electricity. No other generator has been discovered whichconverts low temperature wasted heat to electricity. In theapplications of the combined cycle, the green turbine is utilized asa second turbine to boost the efficiency again. Scientist researchershave dictated that it’s efficient to convert heat into electricitywhen there is high temperature. But during the low efficiency, it isimportant to use the little recovery costs from since if neglected itleads to wasting unutilized energy.

Thediesel engines emit waste heat with high temperatures approximately600 degrees Celsius. Thus the use of green turbine to convert hightemperature waste heat guarantees good returns since it increases theefficiency. The use of waste heat from cars has been viewed as a goodinvestment for instance one megawatt of waste heat generates110-190kWe and annually, the 0.1 euro per kW per hour will generate €95.000 to €160.000.

Experimentation

Acar model will be proposed to be used consisting of engine, batteriesand will be fitted with green turbine generator and other alternativegenerates like internal convention combustion engine model andISGtype42-V vehicle model. The car engine should have a power of 70Kwwhile other generators used should have power of 15Kw similar togreen turbine model to be used.

Theexperimentation will consist of two parts. In the first part, subexperiments will be created though ADVISOR platforms usingMATLAB/Simulink features of the green turbine engine. The other partthe waste heat converting green turbine will be modeled by embeddingit to the whole car simulation model.

Forthe green turbine module, the thermoelectric plates will be arrangedinto 4 layers consisting of 4 rows and 5 columns in parallelarrangement while those between layers and columns will be connectedin series. Green turbine generator is made in sub models just likemodels of cars. The engine speed signal is used as the input channelwhile the electrical power will be used as the output channel. Afterthe lab tests, an improved dataset for various temperatures atvarious points of waste heat channel will be chosen at various enginespeeds. A model for the temperature distributions concerning wasteheat channel will be established for different speeds of the enginein order for the green turbine generator to generate power at variousspeeds of the engine.

Thequestioners will also be designed for one month and will entail allrelevant information concerning the exhaust heat recovery and thegreen turbine. The questionnaires will then be administered to thesampled respondents in the automotive industry. As the questionnairesare being filled, other information will be gathered through carryingout interviews.

ExpectedResults and analysis

Whentesting the vehicle performance, parameters like fuel consumption,power, and emissions will be measured to give the dynamic response tovarious conditions of the engine through imitation of the EconomicCommission for Europe–Europe Urban Dynamometer

Cycle(ECE–EUDC) driving cycle. Also, parameters like internalresistance, battery state of charge, output power, and theefficiency, the open-circuit voltage will be assessed to show theproperties of the electricity.

Theperformance and the simulations will be tested for the models undersame driving cycles for the following models used in the vehiclegreen turbine generator vehicle model, internal convention combustionengine model and ISGtype42-V vehicle model. The results will beanalyzed and tabulated as shown in the following table.

MEASUREMENT

TYPE OF VEHICLE MODEL

Performance cycle conditions

Fuel consumption/100 km

HC emissions (g/km)

CO emissions (g/km)

NOx emissions (g/km)

0–100 km/h acceleration time

60–100 km/h acceleration time

Maximum acceleration (m/s2)

Maximum speed (km/h)

Gradeability (40.2 km/h)

Thequestionnaires will be designed for one month and will entail allrelevant information concerning the exhaust heat recovery and thegreen turbine. The questionnaires will then be administered to thesampled respondents in the automotive industry. As the questionnairesare being filled, other information will be gathered through carryingout interviews. Following the time schedule or timeframe, thequestionnaires will be collected and a team will be formed to arrangethem by discarded those with errors or incomplete forms, coding,keying them in a data base and reviewing to ensure all data enteredis correct. Later the data will be analyzed and made ready forpresentation.

Timeframe

MONTH

ACTIVITY

Responsible person

Week 1

Drafting of the proposal

Week 2

Choosing the model of the car

Week 3

Checking the conditions of generator models

Week 4

Administration of questionnaires

Week 5

Testing the generators models

Week 6

Testing the generators models

Week 7

Testing the generators models

Week 8

Collection of questionnaires

Week 9

Recording of data from questionnaires

Week 10

Compiling all data

Week 11

Presentation of data

Week 12

Analysis of data

Week 13

Review and evaluation of data

Conclusion

Thispaper is aimed at demonstrating on the key pressing issues of energyconsumption and waste emission to environment in the automotiveindustry and need to come up with a solution to such issues. It hasshown that the use of green turbine technology in the utilization ofcar exhaust heat recovery system can be the best method for solvingthese issues.

Theuse of green turbine technology theoretically increases the energyefficiency in a car since, it re-uses the wasted heat and converts itto electricity to be used in warming or cooling or lighting. The useof green turbine has been found to be cost effective, easy to operatedue to its design and has very minimal theory. Thus in the quest tofind solution to energy inefficiency as a result of dwindling fossilfuels, there is need to research on and adopt the green turbinetechnology by car companies to utilize the waste exhaust and get backthe energy to be used elsewhere.

References

  1. Cohen, H., &amp Rogers, G. F. 1951, Gas turbine theory, by H. Cohen and G.F.C. Rogers.. London: Longmans, Green.

  2. Green, J. 2006, 225-kW dynamometer for testing small wind turbine components preprint. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Green, M. D., &amp Duyar, A. 1998, Model-based fault diagnosis for turboshaft engines. Cleveland, Ohio: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center .

  4. Jordan, C. 1989, Exhaust heat containment system. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

  5. Madrigal, A. 2011, Powering the dream: the history and promise of green technology. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

  6. Talabǎ, D., &amp Roche, T. 2004, Product engineering eco-design, technologies and green energy. Dordrecht: Springer.

  7. Wolfarth, J. 2013, Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2013 smart systems for safe and green vehicles. Cham: Springer.