CCT # () revised
Clientcentered therapy is a form of humanistic therapy that emerged in the1940’s (Warley, R., Personal Communication, 9/26/13). Clientcentered therapy involves an emotional interaction between atherapist and a client (Warley, R., Personal Communication, 9/26/13). Rogers was compelled to apply the client centered approach tounderstand how clients achieved change as a result from the treatmentthey received from their therapists (Barrett-Lennard, 1962). Hethought that clients’ problems could be solved better, iftherapists focused on the clients’ understanding rather than ontheir own interpretations and motives of the situation(Barrett-Lennard, 1962 Rogers,1959). However, one major pitfall that remains in CCT, as it lack ofstructure and there is no guarantee that all therapists use the sametechnique to implement CCT (Warley, R., Personal Communication,9/26/13). As, a result, this chapter seeks to propose a guideline tohelp client centered therapy practitioners all be on the same pageand remain true to this treatment model. This will be done byexplaining direct practice that will help therapist be empathic,congruent, and have unconditional positive regard. The RelationshipInventory developed by Barett-Lennard will also be introduced inorder for therapist to evaluate their ability to abide by the coreconditions of CCT.
Onemajor criticism of the theory is the lack of structure in itsapproach. Its biggest disadvantage may be this lack of a clearstructure of application and its dependence on the individualperson’s personality for application this is known as the issue offidelity (Warley, R., personal communication, 1/14/14). The classicalstudies reviewed in chapter 2 did not show or discuss how thetherapist implemented the three core conditions. They all describedwhat each core condition meant, but they did not demonstrate how atherapist would implement these core conditions during therapy. Thestudies did not indicate how a therapist can be warm, empathetic,congruent and compassionate. Because of this lack of clear structure,these studies did not ensure that all of the therapists practicedeach core condition in the same way (Warley, R., personalcommunication, 1/14/14). This is one of the biggest disadvantages ofthe research on client-centered therapy: it lacks structure and thustherapists do not have a universal approach that can be practiced inthe same manner (Warley, R., personal communication, 1/14/14).
Client-centeredtherapy is very useful in theory, but applying it is verychallenging. This means that its effectiveness is closely tied to thepersonality traits of the therapist, traits which may not be presentin all therapists. For example, the therapist ought to have anon-judgmental and understanding personality. Researchers shouldprovide guidelines and/or training that can help therapists practicetheir ability to adhere to the three core conditions. This wouldenhance the applicability of the theory in practice. Therefore,modern practitioners should move towards a standardized system ofapplication, by developing methodologies that can be utilized by alltherapists. These would include the proper strategies to establishand maintain a working alliance, as well as how to use the coreconditions to enhance therapy (Kirschenbaum&Jourdan, 2005). Thiswould involve presenting a systematic approach regarding how toinitiate therapy and how to conduct it effectively so as to maintaina working alliance and influence the client’s behavior. Astructured approach would allow therapists with diverse skills toapply the theory, which would be beneficial because this method is aneffective means of treating various mental disorders(Kirschenbaum&Jourdan, 2005). A structured approach ought toguide the therapist regarding how to establish a working relationshipand at what point to employ different core aspects of CCT. It alsoought to show the therapist how to establish core conditions andovercome the client’s defensive and negative attitudes throughestablishment of a working alliance and use of the core conditions.
Inthe past, the core conditions are the only components that havestructured to the therapeutic process in CCT. However, there is noguideline that helps practitioners be congruent, empathic, and haveunconditional positive regard for their clients (Warley,R., personal communication, 4/15/14). Inorder to help create structure and effectively implement CCT oneneeds to explain what each core condition is and give an example ofwhen and how to use each core condition. Once, each core condition isoperationalized and described when and how to use each component itwill be easier for practionersto know if they are being effective(Warley,R., personal communication, 4/15/14).Also,one must also use a relationship inventory to help measure thetherapist’s ability to stay true to the model. Just as it iscritical clinical setting for therapists evaluate their client’sgoals and progress. In CCT, it is critical that therapists evaluatetheir ability to accurately use the core principles of CCT, this willbe done by using a relationship inventory. As CCT lacks structure,all therapists will be able to determine whether they are stayingtrue to Client Centered Therapy and implementing it properly, as theyall will be doing the same exact thing (Warley,R., personal communication, 4/15/14).Thoroughlyexplaining when and how to apply each core condition and the scale,will help therapist have a guideline, as to how to be client centeredin a therapy session. In the long run, this will help therapists whenthey are evaluated by other practitioners and or clients to determinethat they were able to implement CCT effectively (Personalcommunication).
DirectPractices Skills in a Client-Centered Therapy
Thissection will explain each core condition and will identify directpractice skills under each component in order to educate therapistswhen and how to effectively satisfy each component. The therapistmodels the behavior for the client by adhering to the coreconditions, and therefore will help the clients accept themselves, becongruent, and empathic towards themselves, which will lead totherapeutic change in the client(Rogers,1950).
UnconditionalPositive Regard (UPR)
Unconditionalpositive regard means accepting the client and his/her feelingsunconditionally (Personal communication). Therapists should showpositive attitudes towards the clients in order to establish rapportwith them. Showing positive unconditional regard can be achievedthrough supporting the client that would boost the client’s selfesteem.Supporting is a direct practice skill that is applied when atherapist wants to show his/her unconditional positive regard to theclient (Warley, 2013). The therapist needs to show their support fortheir client by helping them understand that their feelings andproblems are normal in order to help them feel better about theirsituation (Warley, 2013)After a client explains his/her situation,the therapist should try as much as possible to show unconditionalpositive regard to the given situation, thus helping them feelsupported. S/he can show his support to the client through makingcomments and showing physically that they care and accept the clientto demonstrate they understand their situation(Warley,R., personal communication, 10/1/13).The action of supporting a client will help the clients feelstress-free, as the therapist helps the client feel understood and asa result the client feels better about their situation, leading tofeeling stress-free (Warley, 2013). When the therapist shows that, heis accepting the client the way she is, she will feel better aboutherself. Accepting the client unconditionallyin their attempts tosolve the problem would show one’s support to them and will resultin therapeutic change, as they will begin to accept themselvesunconditionally as well (Rogers,1950).
Validatingwould also show therapist’s positive regard to the client.Validating the client’s feelings consists of expressing to theclient that the way they feel about themselves, their problem, and/ortheir situation is normal(Warley, 2013). Therapists should encouragethe clients to accept the way they are and how they feelso as forthem to feel stress-free.Through the process of validation andsupport,clients gain trust in the therapeutic relationship they learnto accept themselves and no longer feel unhappy(Rogers,1950).According to Rogers (1950), this is because clients learn, throughthe therapeutic relationship, to understand themselves, what iscausing their unhappiness, believe in themselves, and their capacityto enhance their own lives and therefore they gain internal comfort.For example, by accepting the client unconditionally through thetherapist’s support and validation of the client, as well as,his/her problemswould establish rapport in the beginning of thetherapeutic alliance (Warley, 2013).
Therapistsneed to be honest to themselves and their client’s about theirclient’s situation, this can be done by giving their opinion aboutthe situation explained by clients(Warley,2013, p.4).According to Rogers(2007, p.10),therapists should not only reveal their outward experiences theyshould reveal both the inner and outer experiences.In other words,therapists should openly give opinions and their experiences that arerelevant to the client’s situation, without denying their feelingsor thoughts. In CCT, honesty motivates the client to share his/herfull experiences (Rogers,1950, p.6).Therapistswho builds rapport and are honest with the client are likely to getfull explanations from the client, because the client would get urgedto reciprocate by sharing his/her experiences. For example,delivering one’s experiences without any discrepancy between one’sword’s and gestural communication would reveal one’s genuinenessin a client-centered therapy (Barrett-Lenard, 1962, p.2).Therapistscan express their personal experiences in the beginning of a sessionin order to build rapport with the clients (Warley, R., personalcommunication, 10/1/13, p.12).
Scanning is a direct practice skill that is used to evaluate a therapist’semotional and mental processes (Warley, 2013).Scanning,means that the therapist needs to analyze and understand their ownthoughts and feelings in regard to their client’s situation(Warley,R., personal communication, 10/1/13, p.13).In addition, thosetherapists who exercise scanning can define the behavioral processesof the clients through analyzing the behaviors portrayed by theclient (Warley, 2013, p.14). Congruence is important in the beginningof a therapeutic assessment where the therapist starts buildingrapport with the client through examining the client’s behavioralprocesses and adjusting his/her the social environment to be alignedwith the image the therapist desires to present to the client.Clients can adjust to the therapist’s environment through adheringto what they have been told by therapists. This helps to achievecongruence by therapists since it determines their success in theprocess. Warley, 2013).Application of syncing technique inclient-centered therapy involves aligning the attitudes of atherapist with their own feelings and attitudes(Warley, 2013). Thetherapist after understanding their own feelings in regard to theclient’s situation, will need to make sure that their body languagematches their thoughts and feelings (Warley, R., personalcommunication, 10/1/13).
Respondingwith congruency is another skill that shows how the therapist’sability to be honest to themselves and their clients (Warley, 2013).Practitioners should be honest when giving their testimonies andexperiences in order to help build rapport with their clients. Theyshould also be sincere when responding and reacting to the clients’situation,for example, if a client expresses that they were sexuallyabuse and they are angry, and hearing the client’s experience alsomakes them angry, they should communicate this to the client. Thiswill help the client understand that they are not the only one’swho are angry but also, by the therapist expressing teir anger thetherapeutic relationship can become stronger. Responding withcongruency is well illustrated when the practitioners’ gesturalcommunication is not different with what they are saying(Warley, R.,personal communication, 10/1/13).
Practitionerscan collaborate with their clients through seeking feedback (Warley,2013). In client-centered therapy, clients should be given anopportunity to explain their feelings and give input about what thepractitioners say(Warley, 2013). If a therapist fails to allow theclient to make decisions, s/he would violate the principles ofclient-centered therapy where the therapist believes in the client’sright to self-determination, by encouraging the client to expresshis/her feelings and make his/her own decisions openly(Rogers,1950).CCThighlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship, where thetherapist and client collaboratively agree upon goals and tasks, andas a result clients need to be encouraged to express themselvesfreely(Warley, R., personal communication, 10/1/13).In this way,therapists would show their collaboration with the client.
Encouragingis one of the best skill that would help in showing how a therapistempathically understands how a client is feeling. Therapists need toencourage clients to talk without any interruptions (Warley, 2013).After a therapist expresses his feeling towards the client’ssituation, he/she should allow the client to comment back about whatthe therapist said without hesitating to cut off the client’swords. Practitioners should use non- verbal gestures that areessentially meant to allow the client continue talking in adiscussion.Not interrupting a client will help them gain a sense thatwhat they are saying is important and they are respected and valued.For example, in therapy involving a counselor and a student, thecounselor would encourage the student to express her feelings byremaining silent, as well as, using gestures and facial expressionsessentially meant to show his/her understanding of the student
Therapistsshould interpret the client’s words including his/herthoughts(Warley, 2013). By listening to the clients’ comments oneought to demonstrate one’s empathic understanding of the client’smain message by paraphrasing what they said. If the client does notagree with the therapist’s understanding they can correct them inorder for the therapist to accurately understand the client’ssituation (Warley, R., personal communication, 10/1/13).In aconversation, reflecting the feeling in the client’s message isanother good direct practice skill to demonstrate the therapist’sempathy for the client (Warley, R., personal communication, 10/1/13). Therapists must not only understand what the client’s message isconveying but they should also understand and repeat back the feelingbehind their message (Warley, 2013).A therapist would portray that heempathetically understands the client, when he gives room for theclient to express himself by deliberately remaining silent in somemoments (Warley, 2013). Therapists should interpret the client’smessages through identifying the feelings and thoughts behind his/herwords. Then, they should pause or show non-verbal gestures allowingthe clients to talk and this would show how well they understandtheir clients (Warley, 2013). Practitioners’ who use the directpractice skills can be assessed using the BLRI scale. As a result,the therapists’ ability to apply the core conditions as stipulatedby the Relationship inventory is obtained thus forming a basis forfurther improvements.
TherapistResponse Variables as stipulated by Barrett-Lenard
AfterCarl Rodgers developed his theory on the sufficient conditions of aclient-centered therapy including unconditional positive regard,empathy, and congruence Barrett-Lenard later developed aninstrument that would assess the therapist’s ability to adhere tofive variables that are causal factors of therapeutic change(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). The Barrett-Lenard Relationship Inventory(BLRI) was designed to collect data and develop measuring scales forthe therapists’ response variables (Barrett-Lennard, 1962).Over thepast years, the BLRI has undergone changes, but, it remains the bestin evaluating the performance of client-centeredtherapies(Freire&Grafanaki, 2010). For example, in a clinicalsetting, the client usually fills a form indicating how he/she wastreated by the psychologists. Later, the answers in the client’sform are used to assess the performance of the psychologist using theBLRI therapists’ response variable scales (Barrett-Lennard, 1962).
Later,studies and research were conducted to find out whether clientcentered therapy delivered the expected results (Barrett-Lenard,1962, p. 2). Researchers were concerned about the processes involvedin this form of therapy, as well as, effectiveness of client centeredtherapy as compared to other therapies(Barrett-Lenard, 1962, p. 2). Amajor concern in the investigations was to identify the factors thatcause personality change and the procedures/methodologies used inassessing that change in person-therapistinteractions(Barrett-Lenard, 1962, p. 3). Barrett-Lenard(1962)studiedhow client-therapist interactions contributes to personality change,as well as, the application of the RelationshipInventoryapproach in determining the causal factors of personality change. TheBLRI scale is used to measure the therapist’s level of congruence,empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard, regard andwillingness to be known as according to the client’s perceptions.The BLRI scale is important because therapist’s can use it toevaluate themselves, and therefore they can define what causes thetherapeutic change in person centered therapy. In short, they canrealize their abilities in adhering to the five core conditions inperson centered therapy.
Beforethe invention of the methodologies used in evaluating therapeuticchange through the five therapist’s response, investigators beforehad tried find out ‘why’ and ‘how’ personality change occursin therapy(Barrett-Lennard, 1962, p.11)In 1957, Carl Rogers came upwith the conditions necessary for therapeutic change to be achievedin a client centered therapy(Rogers, 2007). According to Rogers,therapeutic change in client centered therapy is determined by thetherapist’s level of empathic understanding, his/her congruence andhis/her degree of unconditional positive regard(Rogers,1950).Inhis journal, Barrett-Lenard (1962) has developed his methodologies inassessing causal factors of therapeutic change through following thestated variables that determine personality change in a client.Barrett-Lenard has developed an instrument known as the RelationshipInventory,which he used to gather data and provide the scales for the followingvariables (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
CarlRogers defines the term ‘empathy’ as the therapist’s ability tounderstand the thoughts and feelings of clientsthrough the client’sperception (Rogers,2007).Emphaticunderstanding, however, can involve both parties, but, in this case,therapist’s understanding of the client is of more concernbecausethe Relationship Inventory involves assessing the therapists’ability to help the clients (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).Client centeredtherapy involves therapists incorporating their desire to know theclients’ feelings through interpreting the words and signs emergingwhen communicating(Barrett-Lenard,1962).Then,the therapists should evaluate the clients’ feelings in order todevelop necessary responses that would align with the client’sfeelings (Rogers,2007).Inother words, empathetic understanding is theability to understand andbe aware of the client’s experiences, thoughts, and feelings(Barrett-Lenard, 1962).Barrette-Lennard (1962) explains that thetherapist needs to understand the client’s experience and thecontext of the experience. Therapist’s response to the client’sfeelings can, therefore, determine the therapeutic change inclient-centered therapy, as the client will feel understood by thetherapist and will strive for personality change (Rogers,1950).
Congruenceis an important attribute in client centered therapy. According toBarrett-Lennard (1962), therapist should reveal their personality tothe clients in client-centered therapy, this is done by the therapistability to be honest in what s/he says and does not desire towithhold information from the client. Barrett-Lennard(1962) alsoexplained that the therapist’s ability to be integrated, as theirexperience and awareness match and are not in conflict with oneanother. For client centered therapy to be effective, the therapistshould be honest and sincere in explaining his thoughts andfeelingsto the client about their situation(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). In therapy, lack of congruence can be revealed when there isinconsistency between the actions of a therapist and what he/shesays(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). For example, a therapist who showsdiscomfort and anxiety as he talks might show that he is notcongruent when explaining his experiences. Therapists shouldrevealing their thoughts and feelings to a client in therapy in orderto help strengthen the therapeutic alliance and build rapport(Personal communication).
Accordingto Barrett-Lennard (1962), level of regard refers to the differentpositive or negative responses from the therapist to the client. In therapy the two parties show their level of regard on how theyrespond to each other through words or signs (Barrett-Lennard, 1962).According to Barrett-Lenard, (1962), the level of regard can be wellillustrated through the positive and negative feelings of bothparties in therapy. A therapist can show positive feelings throughrespect, appreciation or affection after the client explains his/herexperiences (Barrett-Lennard, 1962).Therapist’s response can alsobe negative where he/she shows negative feelings such as impatienceand dislike(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). Therapist’s positive feelingswould, therefore, mean presence of therapeutic change, whereas,negative feelings would mean absence of therapeutic change(Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
Barrett-Lennard(1962) coined the term unconditionality of regard, this concept thatis concerned with how much a person varies his/her affective responseto the other person. Rogers states that, therapists should approvethe actions of the client for the effectiveness of a client-centeredtherapy, that is, positive therapeutic change this is because theclients will learn that they too can accept themselvesunconditionally, as the therapist accept all aspects of the client(Rogers, 1957, p.22). When clients are expressing themselves,therapists should maintain positive attitudes towards them, no matterhow much they disapprove of the clients, they need to be accepted inevery way (Rogers,2007, p.18).Those therapists that are not happy with their clients can,therefore, fail to change the clients’ personality, whereas, thosewho employ positive regards to their clients, can achieve therapeuticchange, as clients will accept themselves unconditionally(Rogers,2007, p.20).In the beginning of a CCT session, therapists should show positiveattitudes towards the clients in order to establish rapport with them(Warley, R., personal communication, 10/1/13).Showing Therapists whoaccept every aspect of their clients will model this behavior fortheir client, and as a result the client will learn to accept everyaspect of themselves (Rogers,1950, p.24).
Willingnessto be known
Barrett-Lennard(1962) also coined the term willingness to be known, which refers tothe client’s desire to be get to know the therapist. The degree ofhow one person desires to be known by another can significantlydetermine the outcomes of a client-centered therapy(Barrett-Lennard,1962) The willingness to be known mostly appearsthrough the therapist’s persistently expressing their thoughts andexperiences according to the desires of the clients for the same(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). Those therapists who engage in openself-expression about their experiences illustrate their willingnessto be known(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). In person centered therapy,therapist can show their desire to be known, through engaging in adeep expression of his/her feelings in order to change thepersonality of their client(Barrett-Lennard, 1962).
TheRelationshipInventoryis an instrument developed by Barrett-Lenard to gather data fromtherapies and develop scales for determining the therapist variablesthat create therapeutic change (1962). Barrett-Lenard RelationshipInventory (BLRI) was prepared in parallel forms that were then issuedfor the clients and therapists. The Client forms differed from theTherapist forms in that the positions of the third person and thefirst person were reversed (Barrett-Lenard, 1962). Then the codeletters for the variables were modified where R represents the Levelof RegardE represents EmphaticUnderstandingC represents CongruenceU represents the UnconditionalPositive RegardW represents Willingnessto be known(Barrett-Lennard,1962). For example, the Client form, clients were supposed to fill itaccording to how they feel after being treated by a male therapist(Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
Beforethe issuance of the forms, content validation was carried where fivejudges confirmed whether the statements in the forms were true ornot(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). In other words, the judges evaluatedwhether the statements represented the expressions targeted foreither positive or negative. To eliminate the irrelevant statementsin the forms, the judges classified each statement as either negative(-) or positive (+), those ambiguous ones were illustrated with aneutral (0).The main purpose of this evaluation was to ensure all thestatements in the client and therapist forms suggested theimplementation of the five core conditions in CCT (Barrett-Lenard,1962).
Inthis form, the clients were supposed to mark in +1, +2, +3 or -1, -2,-3 according to how they felt in a therapy (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).The symbols represent whether a statement is true or false asaccording to clients’ feeling in the client-centered therapy(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). The symbols were important as they providedthe clients to differently express their perceptions about thetherapist’s ability to adhere with the five core conditions in aCCT (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
+1:The statement is probably true
+2:The statement is true
+3:The statement has ultimate truth in it
-1:The statement is somehow false
-2:The statement is false
-3:The statement is very wrong
Thefollowing is an excerpt obtained from one Client’s form that wasalready filled.
R-16.Heappreciates how I express myself — +1
E-17.Isaw that he really understood how I was feeling— -1
C-18.Hepretends that he likes me with my problems– +2
U-19.He portrayed a positive a positive attitude as I was explaining mysituation– -2
W-20.He was ready to give his personal experiences-+2
Thetherapists’ forms differed from the clients’ forms’, in that,the positions of the third-person pronouns were reversed and thefirst-person (Barrett-Lenard, 1962). In these forms, the therapistswere supposed to fill the forms in accordance to theclients’ ability to adhere to the five core conditions asstipulated in the Relationship Inventory.This implies the values that guide therapists are different fromthose that guide clients. They were supposed to mark +1, +2, +3, or-1, -2, and -3. These marks allowed therapists to express theirperceptions differently where the statements in each mark are thesame as in the client’s form.
Thefollowing is an excerpt obtained from one therapist’s form that wasalready filled (Barrett-Lenard,1962).
R–7.Ilike the way she likes my advice– +1
E–8.Shealso recognizes my feelings when we conflict— -1
C-9.Shewas confident while giving her experiences- +2
U–10. I like the way she has positive attitudes about my personalexperiences–+3
W–11.Shegives more and more personal experiences after identifying that Ineed to know more about her situation — -2
Later,an item analysis was conducted with the aim of revising theRelationshipInventorythat would be used for further research(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). Theresearch sample was collected amounting to 40 items. In this method,each answer given in the “upper half” was compared with thecorresponding item in the “lower half” of the sample. Finally, 85items were obtained where each variable had 16-18 items. These itemswere then used in the scoring method (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).Theresults obtained were used to design the BLRI scale. The therapistresponses’ scales were important in assessing the ability of thetherapists to satisfy the five conditions, according to the clients’perceptions.
Useof BLRI in Evaluating Therapist Practitioners
Inusing the BLRI, questionnaires are issued for both the clients andthe therapists. The outcomes of the questionnaires both during thepre-therapy and post- therapy sessions are then compared (Freire andGrafanaki, 2005, p.34). The clients are supposed to fill thequestionnaires according to their perceptions on the therapists’ability to comply with the core conditions of PCT. In the firstplace, therapists in client-centered therapies should recognize theresults obtained after the several client forms were filled. Theyshould assess themselves using the answers given in the clients.’This can be done by evaluating the responses of clients. The BLRImeasures scales for therapist variables, and, therefore, it forms agood basis in measuring the level of therapeutic changedue to thetherapist’s ability to adhere to the five variables. BLRI isimportant to assess how well the therapists can be empathic,congruent, willingness to be known, level of regard, andunconditionality of regard in the sessions. The five variables can beassessed by evaluating the outcome of the interactions with clients.(Barrett-Lenard, 1962). For example forms indicating Therapeuticchange illustrates how effective a therapist was, in aclient-centered therapy. The BLRI is reliable in evaluating theperformance of therapists because the primary data is obtained fromthe clients(Barrett-Lennard, 1962).
TheBLRI contains tentative scales for measuring therapists’variables(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). The tentative scale for measuringthe level of emphatic understanding can help therapists to evaluatethemselves. It is a nine-point’s rating scale. The lowest point inthe scale means that the therapist does not understand the client’sfeeling(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). The middle points show that thetherapist responds considerably to the client’s feelings. The highpoint shows that a therapist fully understands the client’sfeelings and responds exactly as it required. In therapy, clientsusually fill the forms that are then used to prepare the scales fortherapists’ variables(Freire and Grafanaki, 2005, p45) Eachvariable has a tentative scale prepared out of the final results in aBLRI. Therapists, therefore, use the tentative scales designed inBLRI to assess their performance (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
BLRIis well used to assess the therapeutic relationship in clinical. Therelationship between the therapist and clients is assessed byevaluating the outcomes of the interactions. Using the BRLI with theclients helps to assess the real causal factors that determinepersonality change in the clients (Barrett-Lenard,1962).Psychotherapists and psychologists can determine howeffectively they engage in a therapeutic relationship with theirclients using the BLRI. In clinical practice, the most commonproblems addressed by psychotherapists include behavioral disorders,depression and causes of delinquent acts (Barrett-Lennard, 1962,p.16).
Asstated earlier, the BLRI contains the tentative scales for all thevariables(Barrett-Lennard, 1962). Each scale is calibrateddifferently, for example, the tentative scale for measuring thegenuineness or congruence is a five-point scale. The lowest point inthis case, shows that the therapist lacks the openness in expressinghimself such that there is a discrepancy between what he says and hisgestural communication(Freire and Grafanaki, 2005). The mid-pointrepresents the defensiveness of a therapist, but, there is inadequateevidence to prove that. The highest point shows that the therapistshares his internal and external experiences with the client (Freireand Grafanaki, 2005). In implementing the BLRI, the clients shouldfill some forms that would then be used later to assess therapist’sperformance using the scales (Barrett-Lenard, 1962). Assessing thetherapist is helpful since it assists in determining their level ofcompetence.
TheBLRI has been developed by experienced therapists and, therefore, itshould apply to the client-centered therapies. The BLRI provides thefive typical variables in a therapy and therapists should work on thebasis of those variables. The variables should be worked on sincethey are essential in the therapeutic process. BLRI has undergonethrough corrections under high supervision and, therefore, proves tobe sound for use in assessing the performance of therapists in theirprofession (Barrett-Lenard, 1962).
Ina client-centered therapy, the clients should be issued with theforms to identify how they were treated in a therapy. Then, thetherapists involved should compare the answers given in the clients’forms with the BLRI. Comparing answers helps in achieving accuracy.Intherapy, the therapist should use the BLRI with 1-4 clients.Therefore, it is better to refer to the details of the BLRI in orderto achieve proper assessment of a client-centered therapy.
Inclinical practice, the most common problems addressed bypsychotherapists include behavioral disorders, depression and causesof delinquent acts (citations).Thebest time to use the BLRI in a therapy is when critical analysis ofthe clients’ problems is needed, for example, in counselingchildren with behavioral disorders. In this case, I would establish arapport during the interpersonal communication. For an immediateassessment of my conduct in that conversation, I would ask the childto explain how he is feeling about my topics. Then, using the BLRIscales I would assess my performance, which would form a basistowards achieving personality change in the child.
Importanceof Person centered Therapy
Clientcentered therapy can be made effective when therapists establishrapport with children, youth, women and families (CYWF) by showingpositive attitudes towards all of their clients, regardless of theirtroubled situations. In this way, clients will openly explain theirexperiences thus forming a basis for the therapist to successfullyaddress the situation throughout the session. In addressing CYWF, thetherapists ought to be congruent when sharing their experiences inorder to encourage clients to trust their therapists. Therapists canestablish rapport in order to enhance close interaction with all thefamily members. Empathy, congruency and unconditional positive regardare very important attributes in addressing this group of population.
Barrett-LenardG. T., (1962). Dimensionsof Therapist Response as Causal Factors in Therapeutic Change.London: Sage.
Rogers, C.R. (1950).A current formulation of client-centered therapy.TheSocial Service Review,24(4),442-450. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jstor.org.mimas.calstatela.edu/stable/30019587?seq=2
Rogers,C. R. (2007). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeuticpersonality change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice,Training, 44(3), 240-248.doi:10.1037/0033-322.214.171.124
Rogers,C. R., (1959).Atentative scale for the measurement of process in psychotherapy:Rubinstein & M. B. Parloff (Eds.), Research in psychotherapy.Washington, D. C: American Psychological Association.