Cuba prioritizes clean energy
Cubaprioritizes clean energyBy:Livia RodríguezDelis
Aspart of the updating of its economic model, Cuba has prioritized achange in policies to promote energy efficiency and the developmentof renewable resources. Currently, the country is highly dependent onfossil fuels, with only 3.9% of electricity generated using renewableresources, creating not only a significant source of pollution, buthigher prices as well, given that the cost of these fuels intransferred to other products.
Cubaannually generates 17,586 gigawatts per hour (gwh) of electricity,with peak time demand of approximately 3,156 megawatts (mw), whiletotal losses in transmission and distribution amount to 17.6%. Thecountry’s strategy is to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, with aview toward more national independence in terms of energy and areduction in the cost of electricity provided consumers, currentlyimpacted by the high cost of oil on the world market.
Theplan emerged as a result of guidelines approved by the 6thCongressof the Communist Party of Cuba in 2011, which emphasized the need topromote the use of renewable resources within the nationalelectricity system and in remote areas, to make service moreefficient. On December 11, 2012, a governmental commission wascreated to assume responsibility for drafting a proposal for the useand prospective development of renewable resources for the period2013-2030.
In2004, Cuba’s national electric grid suffered a serious breakdown,complicating economic operations and the social life of the country.As a result of this incident, on the initiative of Fidel Castro, aprogram entitled the Energy Revolution was launched to replaceobsolete power plants and outdated, inefficient household appliances,to ensure the rational use of electricity. The program’s firstmoves included the addition of 2,400mw of generating capacity withhigh-efficiency motor-generators distributed across the country,increasing the National Electric System’s efficiency via lower fuelcosts and a reduction in transmission losses, since electricity isproduced closer to consumers. To eliminate losses in distributiongrids, some 215,000 posts and 7,000 kilometers of primary cable, 1.8million services, 33,700 secondary circuits and 2.8 million meterswere replaced, according to Leandro Matos, director of the Ministryof Mining and Energy’s strategy and policy department.
Residentialusers played a leading role in the effort, replacing 94 millionincandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescents and 4.4 millioninefficient appliances. Matos explained that the effort was supportedlegally with Resolution no.190 which prohibited the importing ofincandescent bulbs and instituted new guidelines for service rates.According to Ministry data on the impact of the light bulbchange-out, usage was reduced by 25mw for every million bulbs litduring peak hours. The investment made was recouped in less thanthree months. "In 2009 technical regulations entered into effectto establish and enforce requisites for energy efficiency, electricalsecurity and the adaptation to a tropical climate of equipmentimported, fabricated or assembled in the country, to permit theirdistribution," the expert continued. Matos reported that thereare four laboratories in Cuba authorized by the National Office forRational Energy Use (ONURE), in which tests and trials of equipmentare carried out, in accordance with norms approved by the CubanElectro-technical Committee. When the results of the laboratory testsindicating performance are completed, he said, ONURE emits atechnical certification with which a determination is made as towhether or not a piece of equipment may be sold in Cuba.
Atthe same time, steps were taken in the industrial and commercialsectors to promote energy efficiency, including the replacement of2,500 inefficient water pumps in water supply and waste watersystems banks of condensers were installed by large consumers and anational energy supervision body was established. In an effort toachieve better energy management, electricity consumption was plannedon the basis of equipment consumer indexes and levels of activity.Daily monitoring and control of usage, analysis of this data andadherence to plans for electricity consumption were established.
"Withinfive years, the consumption of crude oil and its derivativesdeclined energy use was reduced by 27%, with savings of 9.3 milliontons of fuel, equivalent to 4.66 billion dollars," Matosexplained.
"Wehave reached a favorable, opportune moment to implement the secondstage of the Energy Revolution, since there is greater support and amore effective national focus is guaranteed."
Renewableenergy is energy which is obtained from natural sources, consideredinexhaustible, such as the sun, wind, rain, tides and geo-thermalheat. These are not subject to abrupt prices changes, since they arefree for the taking, as opposed to fossil fuels which are becomingmore expensive as their supply diminishes.
Inthe year 200 BC, in China and the Middle East, windmills were used topump water and grind grain. The Romans used geothermal sources toheat their homes. Based on the premise that nature`s bounty offersmany advantages, and the need to make use of this bounty in asustainable fashion, an ambitious investment program was initiated inCuba in 2013 to develop clean, alternative energy resources. "Webuilt the first seven banks of solar photovoltaic panels and sixsmall hydroelectric plants one 500 kilowatt plant using woodybio-mass and three bio-gas plants to generate electricity,"reported Raciel Guerra, the Ministry`s Renewable Energy director. "Wealso initiated the construction of the country`s first 51 megawattwind farms and are sure that, in 2014, we will begin the first twobio-electric plants using sugar cane bio-mass. Intense preparatorywork is underway."
Guerraexplained pre-feasibility, technical-economic studies recentlyconcluded on important projects to be undertaken over the next fewyears, "These were about the construction of 19 bio-electricplants based on sugar cane 13 wind farms, and the others are solarpanel banks and small hydroelectric plants on the country`s waterreservoirs."
"Alsobeing studied are needed investments in national industries for theproduction of renewable energy systems, to avoid becoming importers,but rather collaborate with international companies to fabricatecomponents and replacement parts within the country, which allows usto develop our industry, increase job opportunities and reduce costs,for example in the production of water heaters."
Thegoal? Make energy available to support the country`s development andprovide quality electric service lower costs to make nationalproduction more efficient produce lower cost electricity for thepopulation contribute to the development of national industry byreducing costs associated with importing new technology, andeliminate sources of pollution
Thearticle discusses the potential development of clean renewable energysource for Cuba and it falls under the theme Economic and SocialDevelopment. The issue relates the economic status and the effect ofthe clean energy as the priority source for energy for Cuba. Cleanrenewable energy is a developing technology used mainly by developingcountries like Cuba to sustain quality energy to support thecountry’s development. Deciding to make clean energy as thepriority can make massive effect on the economy of Cuba since it ishighly dependent on fossil fuels.
Women’sStudies in CubaYeniaSilva Correa
Oneof the priorities of more than a few institutions and researchcenters in Cuba has been to promote the dissemination of studiesabout women. Taking these debates beyond the walls of academia isfundamental to communication in a world which must becomeincreasingly inclusive.
Dr.Isabel Moya Richard, president of the José Martí InternationalJournalism Institute’s Gender and Communication Studies faculty,shared her opinions on the subject.
Howare Gender Studies faring in Cuba at this time?
Ithink this is a very good time because reflection has begun todevelop from within. The creation of 33 Women’s Studies faculties,the existence of a Gender Studies Masters program and the Federationof Cuban Women’s Center for Studies of Women, have been developingknowledge through investigations which allow for our own analysis ofthe Cuban reality.
Alsobeginning to be noted is an incipient bibliography, making availablethe thinking of Cuban researchers on these issues. On some questionswe are even fairly advanced, such as in the study of masculinities.
Howhas the post-graduate course Gender and Communication contributed tobetter understanding of the issues?
Thecourse emerged in 2002 and was a result, in the first place, of thesensitivity of Guillermo Cabrera, director of the Institute at thattime, which hosted the Gender and Communication faculty. We beganwith smaller efforts. Later we were able to develop this course, fromwhich more than 200 persons from Latin America and Spain havegraduated, allowing for the development of other workshops andseminars. The course is one of the many activities we carry out.
Womenfunction in a world in which the male point of view predominates insocial relations. How will the moment arrive when a female point ofview exists as well?
Theproblem is not to propose a world from the masculine or femininepoint of view. The great challenge – what feminism really aspiresto – is to see a world for human beings, with recognition ofdiversity, of the multiple ways that being a man or a women can bestructured.
Ibelieve that the obligatory mandates, about what it means to be awoman or a man, are the big problem of contemporary society. Inpractice, we see that there are different ways to assume it [genderidentity]. These approaches must be developed based on theopportunities, the interests, the desires of people, not by strictcultural mandates. Therein lies the importance of the media providingdebate of these issues.
Attimes, the efforts of the media are very simplistic. It is either asuperwoman who is practically impossible to emulate, doesn’tprovide an example to anyone because she doesn’t have her own life,or the model of a woman who must renounce having a family to besuccessful, or on the other hand, maternity as something obligatoryand forced. These frameworks don’t lead anywhere.
Whatresponsibility do media professionals have?
Ithink they must present this reality as a problem. On certain dateswe interview magnificent, marvelous, self-sacrificing women, but theway maternity is experienced is not presented as a problem. Why do sofew men care for their children from the age of six months to a year,when they have the same benefits?
Women,unfortunately, can also be machistas,because this is an ideology present in society. We have been educatedthis way.
Attimes, it is believed that, given the accomplishments Cuban womenhave achieved in public life, equality has been achieved. We haveadvanced a great deal in political participation. As a country, wehave the second greatest number of female parliamentarians in theworld, but there is a cultural challenge which is much more difficultto overcome. There is an extensive cultural scaffolding, whichpermeates everything from the home to the mass media, continuing toshape us in the traditional way. That is why it is important topresent as a problem the specific case of Cuba, where so much hasbeen accomplished and there are problems which other countries don’thave.
Socialstructures can indicate the Economic and Social Development of acountry. In a world where the masculine predominates and the feminineequality as one of the basis of advancement to social structure in acountry, feminism recognizes diversity. Cuba has the second greatestnumber of female parliamentarians in the world but the real challengeto overcome is cultural. Thereare many ways where men and women can be structured in contemporarysociety and is one of the issues of Cultural Diversity. In Cuba,there is extensive cultural scaffolding.
Culture:The spiritual fabric of Cuban societyMiguelBarnet
Cultureis that which strengthens our spiritual fabric, enabling the countryto have confidence in its foundations, said Cuban intellectual andethnologist Miguel Barnet, making a guest appearance on thetelevision program Dialogar-Dialogar.
Inhis comments, apropos the upcoming 8th Congressof the Union of Cuban Writers and Artists, set to begin April 11, thecurrent president recalled how, some 53 years ago, the historicleader of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro, developed the idea ofuniting, in one organization, the heterogeneous mass of Cubanartists, at that time largely ignored.
Onthe basis of Fidel’s acclaimed Words to Intellectuals (June, 1961),the idea of creating UNEAC emerged, with National Poet LaureateNicolás Guillén as its first president, one of the country’s mostprestigious writers, celebrated nationally and internationally,Barnet recounted.
Barnetrecalled that Fidel’s views about the role of culture in thedevelopment of spirituality have always been very clear, to thedegree that, during the country’s most difficult times in the1990’s when the economy hit bottom, he asserted emphatically, "Ourculture is that which must be saved first."
Thesewords were chosen as the maxim guiding the Congress, which will becharacterized by deep reflection and thinking, since theorganization’s membership is serious and mature, Barnet said. Heinsisted that the discussions must reflect the maturity of Cuba’sartists and intellectuals, demonstrating their valor and integrity,in the search for the orientation needed to improve society, andbecome better human beings.
Summarizingthe work done by UNEAC over the last five decades, he commented, "Ithas not been a rosy path, since material obstacles exist, but alsomisunderstandings, dogmatism – a word which fortunately now soundsold-fashioned – bureaucratism and prejudice, which are beingovercome."
Duringhis conversation with host Amaury Pérez, a singer-songwriter andUNEAC member, Barnet, who is also the president of the Fernando OrtizFoundation, clarified why he agreed to assume the organization’spresidency, despite his multiple responsibilities as a writer,researcher and ethnoogist.
Hesaid it was difficult to refuse the responsibility which implies agreat commitment, since he agrees very much with Cuba’s nationalhero José Martí, and believes in the utility of virtue.
"Ihave always had a social avocation, which I learned from great menlike anthropologist Fernando Ortiz and musicologist Argeliers León,who represent a tradition of which I am proud. The work is a pleasuresince I can project to the world a participative culture, a culturalpolicy in which I believe, because it promotes the spirituality ofhuman beings," Barnet said.
Diversityin culture can be the indication of nation’s strength for most ofthe times. The less diverse, the more unified the country is, andthis is the reason for Cuba’s rise in the 1990’s.
Therole of culture is been clear in guiding the orientation needed toimprove society and the community itself. Culture is learned and notinnate and it is a shared behavior. This method used by Cuba can becalled the cultural nationalism which is the process of promotingtheir own culture for local and national importance.
Educationand healthcare for sustainable developmentYeniaSilva Correa
April7-10, the International Congress for Health Promotion is taking placein Havana. The event is being held at the Convention Center,featuring a program consisting of workshops, conferences and lecturesin order to exchange educational practices and promote good health.
Regionalorganizations and international specialists within this field willalso be present, with the Convention Center playing host to theRegional Congress for the Promotion of Health in schools the IXRegional Conference for Education and Promotion of Health withinEducational Institutions and the fifth meeting of the Latin AmericanNetwork of School Health Promoters.
Oneof the main aims of the conference is to propose strategies topromote healthy lifestyles, with particular interest in healtheducation in schools and universities. Some of notable lecturesplanned deal with issues such as "Evidence of the effectivenessof the promotion of health in Latin American Schools," lead byBlanca Patricia Mantilla from the Industrial University of Santander(Colombia) and "Education for health: Experiences from the CubanMinistry of Education," by Yanira Gómez Delgado.
Theevent will include visits to educational centers designated as healthpromotion schools, to facilitate interaction between teachers,students and the community. Two of the schools to be visited are, theVillena-Revolución Polytechnic Institute, and Solidaridad conPanamá, a special school for physically disabled pupils.
Delegatesfrom Puerto Rico, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, Cape Verde,Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Angola, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay,Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Cuba, are scheduled to attend.
Healthcare is one of the indicators of the development of a country sinceit reflects the population growth and development and also thesettlement of individuals. Evidences of good health care andeducation in Cuba can indicate Social Development so the CubanGovernment is promoting them. Different countries have differentapproaches in population growth and are indicated by health care andeducation. Some countries promote population growth when they sustainthe availability of proper health care and the quality of education.
CubanParliament Passes New Foreign Investment LawGustavoBecerra Estorino
TheCuban Parliament unanimously adopted on March 29 a new ForeignInvestment Law, crucial to updating the country’s economic modeland building a prosperous and sustainable socialist system.
Thelaw was adopted with modifications submitted by the parliamentarycommissions on Economic, and Constitutional and Legal Issues.
Theextraordinary session, called by the Council of State to analyze thebill, was attended by President Raul Castro, as well as by CommunistParty leaders and government officials. Lawmakers insisted on theneed to attract foreign capital to sectors of special importance tothe country, particularly those related to production, always basedthe principle of protecting natural resources and the country’snational sovereignty.
Thenew Cuban foreign investment law offers guarantees to investors suchas the free transfer abroad of profits in convertible currency, taxexemptions on net profits and other benefits authorized forreinvestment.
Speakingto the Cuban Parliament, Foreign Investment and Trade MinisterRodrigo Malmierca said that the new law states that propertiesacquired in Cuba by foreign investors in the areas of production andservices cannot be expropriated except in cases of public or socialinterest previously declared by the Cuban government.
Insuch cases, any expropriation would imply appropriate compensationaccording to established commercial value and by mutual agreementbetween the investors and Cuba, Malmierca pointed out.
CubanGovernment Vice-President Marino Murillo said that the new ForeignInvestment Law is necessary to begin speaking of development and notonly of economic growth and its appropriate implementation does notmean giving away the country in pieces.
Addressinglawmakers, Murillo, who heads the Permanent Commission for theImplementation and Development of the Economic and Social Guidelinesapproved by the Communist Party said that in order to achieve greatereconomic growth, the country must increase its Gross Domestic Productby seven percent annually, with investment rates of up to 20 percent, which requires external financing not available to the country atthis time.
Murillosaid that Cuba currently dedicates most of its created wealth tolocal consumption and a smaller portion to investment. This realityconfirms the need for a new foreign investment law, in tune with theeconomic guidelines, he noted.
Thegovernment vice-president said that as the bill states, theparticipation of foreign capital complements the country’sinvestment efforts and it will continue to be so in global terms,though for some sectors foreign investment will be crucial.
Speakingat the Assembly, Fernando Gonzalez, one of the five Cubananti-terrorist fighters imprisoned in U.S. jails since 1998,expressed on behalf of his comrades his gratitude to the national andworld solidarity movements for their support of the cause and hisreturn home.
TheCuban Parliament elected through secret and direct vote two newmembers to the country’s Council of State, the body representingthe Assembly between sessions.The general secretary of the CubanWorkers’ Confederation, Ulises Guilarte, and the president of theSmall Farmers’ Association, Rafael Ramon Santiesteban were electedto the Council of State during the First Extraordinary Session of theCuban legislative body.
Thereare some indicators or methods of measuring the nation’s wealthsuch as the gross domestic product (GDP) which is the value of allproducts and services of the country and the gross national product(GNP) which is GDP plus the net income abroad. Investment is one ofthe major influences of the GDP and is much regulated by thegovernment. Increasing the GDP of the country requires more externalfinancing not available to the country or simply investments. Lawsaffecting the foreign investment majorly change the Economic andSocial Development of a country.
RebuildingCuba’s fruit industryLivia RodríguezDelis
Cubais working to develop the country’s fruit industry in a sustainablefashion, to meet domestic demand from the population and touristfacilities, as well as expand exports. The government’s strategyincludes expanding acreage devoted to fruit cultivation, regularizingthe delivery of agricultural supplies and developing know-how in thefield.
Figuresannounced mid-2013 by the Tropical Fruit Cultivation ResearchInstitute indicated that the total acreage devoted to non-citrusfruit cultivation on the island is 88,367 hectares, with the greatestportion, 30%, devoted to mango groves. With the inclusion of citrus,the total reaches 109,367 hectares.
Resultsare, however, not yet encouraging. According to the NationalStatistics and Data Office, from January through September, 2013, thevolume of agricultural production (without including sugar cane)declined by 2.6%, and among the products which showed significantdeclines were citrus and other fruit, with the exception of guava andpineapple.
Inits efforts to rebuild the fruit industry – at its height some 30years ago – the country has as assets an ideal climate, a system ofresearch facilities, and a broad layer of small farmers andcooperatives who provide the greatest percentages of agriculturalproduction in the country.
Withinthis broad group of farmers, gaining momentum is the Movement ofFruit Cooperatives which has united some 102 agriculturalcooperatives specializing in fruit production across the country,recognized for their productivity, the quality of their fruit and theimplementation of best practices, such as the use of bio-fertilizersand intercropping.
Accordingto information provided by the national fruit company, some 31,000hectares are being managed by cooperatives involved in this movement,with the cultivation of mango predominating (11,500 ha) followed byavocado (6,000) guava (4,500) papaya (2,700) pineapple (2,400)zapote (600) and among other species, 3,300 hectares.
"Themovement has experienced big changes these last few years anddelivery of supplies and resources has been improving. This hasallowed us to make projections and, next year, we intend to reach 200hectares of fruit trees and will also identify new species,"said Luis Gerardo Pérez Gutiérrez, during an interview with GranmaInternational.He is president of the Nelson Fernández Cooperative in themunicipality of Madruga, Mayabeque province.
PROGRESSIN MOVING FROM SUGARCANE TO FRUIT
Asa result of the reorganization of the sugar industry in 2002, in aneffort to improve management and productivity, the Nelson FernándezCooperative was released from several contracts, and took up thecultivation of tubers, vegetables, fruit and other food crops on 62%of the land it had previously devoted to sugarcane. The cooperative,one among some 5,200 which exist in the country, was included in whatis called the Álvaro Reynoso Task, being undertaken by leaders infruit production.
"Giventhe distance between our entity and the sugar mill," Pérezexplained, "we decided we wouldn’t plant any more cane andwould concentrate on varied crops."
"WhenDecree-Law 259 was implemented – and later no.300, related to thegranting of land in usufruct – our cooperative grew. We had only 13caballerías and now we have 67, adding area granted to 93individuals in usufruct, which means that our land increased seventimes over."
Currentlythe Nelson Fernández, a credit and services cooperative (CCS),devotes more than 140 hectares to fruit, successfully cultivating 38to 40 species, with good yields.
"Wehave considerably increased citrus fruit, a crop facing biginfestation problems in Cuba. We have already harvested 100 tons ofPersian limes this year," Pérez continued.
Althoughfruit production is the cooperative’s principal mission, the NelsonFernández CCS also produces significant amounts of milk, meat,tubers and vegetables. Their corn and bean harvests are important toreducing imports of these much-in-demand foods.
"Aswe have continued clearing land of marabou and undergrowth, we wantto continue growing, expanding the fruit orchards, which is oursocial objective, and install a new type of mini processing plantduring 2014, looking to complete the production cycle."
"Wehave achieved this much as a result of everyone’s efforts. Irepresent 167 small farmers, who with their effort and daily work areresponsible for all of our accomplishments."
Althoughsuch encouraging examples exist, the organizational work of themovement is far from complete. Obstacles which are hampering theaccomplishment of its goals must be overcome, to recover thecountry’s fruit growing tradition.
Implementingbest practices treatment of residual waste from mini processingplants contracting cooperatives’ production to meet demand andguaranteeing the delivery of supplies needed to maintain groves andnurseries are all part of the strategy to be followed, to ensure thestable development of Cuba’s fruit industry.
Expansionof an industry can affect the nations GDP to increase if they meetthe domestic demand as well as internationally. Developing countriesmostly rely on their particular industry to promote to othercountries and collect income and improve their economy. Most of themalso rely on the reorganizing their previous industry like what theCuba did. Improvement of these industries promotes Economic andSocial Development.
Livia RodriguesDelis. “Cubaprioritizes clean energy”.February 21, 2014. Web. April 11, 2014http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/21febre-Cuba%20prioritizes.html.
YeniaSilva Correa. “Women’sstudies in Cuba”.February 19, 2014. Web. April 11, 2014http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/19febre-Women.html.
MiguelBarnet. “Culture: the spiritual fabric of Cuban society” April 1,2014. Web. April 11, 2014.http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/10ABR-Culture.html.
YeniaSilva Correa. “Educationand healthcare for sustainable devenlopment”.April 10, 2014. Web. April 11, 2014.http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/10abr-Education%20and.html.
GustavoBecerra Estonio. “Cuban parliament passes new foreign investmentlaw”. March 31, 2014. Web. April 11, 2014.http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/31marzo-parlamento.html.
Livia RodriguesDelis. “RebuildingCuba’s fruit industry”.February 4, 2014. Web. April 11, 2014.http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/4febre-Rebuilding%20Cuba.html.
Globalizationis a process that is probably unavoidable as the world is in a stagewhere technology interconnects everyone. It can amid diversitythrough converging processes of economic, political and culturalchange. Globalization promotes communication links between countriesand creates global free trade agreement. Many of the issues in Cubaillustrate the general processes of globalization and diversity isoccurring although globalization itself in Cuba is very slow due toits government.
Oneof the components of globalization is the culture of global consumer.Globalization has a possibility of eroding the local diversity andcan cause social tensions between traditional cultures. Although thatmay be the case, Cuba, as a socialist country, promotes its culturefor their economic purposes. Cuba’s population is multiethnic butintermarriage makes their culture less diverse. There is lessinfluence coming from outside countries due to some restrictions ofthe government. Culture collision in Cuba is evident within itsnation but limited internationally and some of the issues andproblems are unique to the country. Cuba is clearly not much of aculture that can be mixed naturally.
Anothersign of globalization is the growing emigrations and it is notevident in the socialist nation of Cuba. Migration is a verysensitive issue for every Cuban where government usually forbidscommon citizen the right to travel abroad by creating an exit permit.Emigrated Cuban is also required to take entry permit. Unlike Cuba,most of the migration involves push and pull factors workingtogether. Push factors are the one keeping migration not to occur andis eminent in Cuba. Although there are restrictions in the nationalglobalization of Cuba, Urbanization is locally illustrated. Almosthalf of the world’s population lives in the urban area. Butmigration is very important since as the analysis said ‘thegreatest migration in human history is occurring now’.
Geopoliticsis a term that describes close link between geography and politicalactivities which is focused on the interactions between power andterritory. Global trades are accompanied by the laws governingnational economy including foreign investors and local industries. Asa developing country, Cuba relies on its own industry and foreigninvestors. Illustration of globalization is very distinguished in thecase of economic development. Relying on international income, Cubapromotes renewable energy resources and improves their existingindustries.
Thelast component is the environmental concern for industrialize countrylike Cuba. Globalized economy often creates environmental problemsand loses of natural resources. Although certain improvement isoccurring on agriculture of Cuba due to globalization, politicaldivergence equalizes the changes for protecting the environment.Health care and education is also the focus of improvement for theCuban government due to rapid population growth and increase in areasfor industry and urbanization.
Theworld is still a diverse place when it comes to language, culture andpolitics even globalization occurs at its fullest. Ethnic andcultural differences may contribute to separatist political movementcreating diversity within. To illustrate political diversity, onemust look on the world issues such as global terrorism and politicalindependence. Globalization is the driving force for reorganizationof global trade, agreements and individual economies as well asculture exchange and military alliances. All of these components ofglobalization and diversity are illustrated in the issues in Cuba.