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Darwin and Literary Analysis

DARWIN AND LITERARY ANALYSIS 7

Darwinand Literary AnalysisAuthorInstitution

Abstract

LiteraryDarwinism is literaturein thecontextof evolutionby meansof naturalselection,inclusiveof gene-culture co-evolution. Itis a representativeof theemergingtrendsof neo-Darwin’s conceptsof intellectualconceptsbeyond thescopeof evolutional biologyevolutional anthropology,evolutionary psychology,behavioral ecology,evolutionary anthropology,evolutionary developmental psychology,affective neuroscience, cognitive psychology,behavioral genetics,evolutionary epistemology, andothermajordisciplinesof naturalselection.Thispaperseeksto exploreDarwin’s theoryof evolution,whyitbroughtintellectualdevelopmentandcurrentvisionsof humanbeingsthat haveemergedfrom evolution,howhumanbeingsevolvedto havebrains,andhownarrativebrainideasisusedin cognitive studies.

Darwinand Literary Criticism 1.)Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Naturalselectionis theentityin which biologicaltraitsgraduallybecomeeitherlessormoregeneralin a givengroupas a subset of theoverall affectthefeaturesinheritedon diversereproductivesuccessionof an organismin interactionwith their environment.Itis a majorconceptof development.Thetermnatural selectionwasmadepopularby Charles Darwin whowanteda widercomparisonwith artificialselection,presentlyas selectivebreeding (Nardo,2001).

Factorssurroundingthesuccessof thereproductiveprocessare alsoessential,an aspectthat Darwin developedin his argumentson sexualselection.Forinstance,natural selectionactson theobservablecharacteristicsof an organismorthephenotype. Nevertheless,theheritable basisof anyphenotype that has a reproductiveadvantagemay be morefrequentin thegroup.Over time,theprocessresultsinto a populationspecializingin particularecologicalnichesandat thelongrunmay resultto theemergenceof newerspecies.In a differentdimension, naturalselectionis a necessaryprocess(thoughnot theonlyexistingprocess)by which differentorganismsevolves andtakeplacewithin theconfinesof thepopulationof organisms.Naturalselectionis thebackboneof modernbiology.Charles Darwin describedtheprocessas analogousto artificialselection,an aspectthatplantsandanimalswith desirabletraitsas consideredby humanbreedersare favoredsystematicallyforreproduction.Theconceptwasdevelopedwithout a validtheoryof heredityfactors(Zunshine,2006).

  1. a.) Why Darwin`s Theory Brought Intellectual Revolution in Human Beings Concept.

CharlesDarwin theoryof evolutionbroughtintellectualrevolutionin thehumanbeingsconcept.He causedintellectualfermentamong scholarsby concludingthatthephysicalworldis stillandhas beena subjectto changesthrough externalactionsof naturalforces.Morespecifically,humanbeingsare a productof theseforcesthatcompelthedrasticchange.There are noarticlesorbooksthat haveinfluencedthemodernperceptionof manthan Darwin`s bookon theoriginof species.Publicationof Darwin`s bookon theoriginof speciescastsdoubtson thetraditionalbeliefsregarding thegenesis of life.In thesameregard,itprompteda sharperre-orientation of oralandphilosophicalattitudes(Nardo,2001).

Thefirstconceptisdrawnfrom three basicfactsthatDarwin observedin thenaturalworld.Hesawthattheorganismreproducesmoreoff springsthan theycan replacethemselves, thusthesizeof thepopulationshould be drastic.In fact,thebetterwordforthisconceptis overproduction.Nevertheless,Darwin sawhimself andconfirmedhis observationwith otherscholars.Darwin arguedthatwith theavailability of resourcessuchas water,food,placeto mateandsleepis alwayslimited.Scientificrevolutionshapedthewayhumanbeingsperceivetheworld.Darwin’s evolutiontheory wasan epistemological revolutionitchangedthethinkingprocess.Itwasin otherwordsan intellectualevolution,wheretheknowledgeof humanbeingsevolved.Morethan Renaissance scholarswhodiscoveredthenatureandman,thescientificrevolutionariestriedto comprehendand explaintheoriginof man.

Thinktankssuchas thePolish astronomerNicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), theFrench philosopherRene½ Descartes, andIsaac Newton (1642-1727) broughta paradigmshiftin theclassicalworldandmiddleages.Intellectualfermentledto controversyover scienceandreligion.Bothclergymenandevangelistsbecameliberalarguing thatthetheorieswereimpudent,whereasscientistsstatedthatclergymenwereignorant.Theintellectualfermentmademid-andlateVictorian periodstimes of thegreatreappraisal in socialandnaturalsciences.Existingtraditionalphilosophyprofessedby amateursinto presentdaysciencethat wasdevelopedby scientistswhowereprofessions.Thebasisof theseprofessionsis on authorityandcompetenceon rigidpracticalandtheoreticalresearch(Nardo,2001).

b.)CurrentVision of Human Beings that has Emerged from Evolution.

Bylookingat thenaturesurroundingthem, humanbeingscan finda connectionto theanimateworld.Theystillare uniqueandto mergeoverother organisms.Humansare subjectedto certainphenomenology that is onlyinherentin them only.From phenomenological view,theemergenceanduniqueness of thehumanracebecomeapparentin diverseways.Their adaptationto thehabitatin accordance to thespecificintentionsandadaptationin themostconvenientwaythelanguagetheyusewhich allowscommunicationthrough symbolsanddevelopabstractdespite theimmediateness andcorrectnessof their instinctivelife.In addition,thecapacityto comprehendthenatureworldwhosebehaviortheyhavetheabilityto transformandpredictin accordance to their needssearchof informationanddeliberatetargetsthat gavebirthto history.Thesoleuniqueness of humanscomefrom their culturefrom religiousdimension that has ledthem to wonderof their existence,freedom,moralityof their actionswhich is thebeginningandendof newthings(Nardo,2001).

3.)HowHuman Beings evolvedto haveBrains thatCreates theExperience of a Person of theWorld by Creating Narrative

CharlesDarwin theoryfeaturesan organismthat helpitsurviveandreproduceare morelikelyfeaturethan anyotherfactorsthat can be passedto thenextgeneration.Humanbeingsare affectedby bothexperienceandgeneticinheritance.Theaspectsin which peopledevelopare shapedby circumstancesandsocialexperiencewithin theconfinesof their inheritedgeneticpotential. Eachhumanbeingisbornin thecontextof culturalandsocialsettingscommunity,family,language,socialclassandreligioneventuallythere are developssocialconnections.Thecharacteristicsinherentin a childsocialsetupaffectshowhe/she learnto behaveandthink,by instructionmeans,punishmentandrewards,andexamplespresented(Nardo,2001).

Thesettingis inclusiveof home,neighborhood,school,religion,lawenforcementagenciesandthewholeenvironmentsurroundingher. Interactionswith friends,peers,relativesandmultimedia playsa pivotalrolein influencingresponsesof differentsituations.Nevertheless,there is somesimilarityin thewaypeopleresponds to thepatternsof influencebased on culture.Furthermore,behaviorsinducedculturally suchas speech,humorbodylanguagebecomesdeeplyrooted in thehumanmindsin a waythat theyoperateevenwithout beingaware(Nardo,2001).

4.)a.) HowNarrative Brain Concepts isusedin Cognitive Cultural Studies.

Thebasicfancyof theactivityof thebrainsof humanbeingsis thateachpersonhas to learnto see.Theinformationthatwereceivespecificallythrough sensesfrom thematerialworldhas to be interpretedinaccordanceto setpersonalrulesbefore therealitydawns.Thehumanbrainhas to performthecreativity before humanbeingscan seeat all.In personalexperiences,in thehumanversionof theworld,theversionhas two mainsourcesthestudyfrom ourculturesandsocialrules.Theversionof a manin theworldthatheinhabitshas a focal logicalfunction:a formof interactionwith theenvironmentthat allowshim to be consistentwith lifeandachievecontrolover thesurrounding.At thelongrunallowshim to maintainlifeandachievecontrolover theenvironment.Weinterpretcertainsensoryin accordance to setrules.Cognitive researchis a disciplinethat studiestherelationshipbetween theevolvedhumanbrainandculturalanalysisby variousculturessince cultureisusuallyperceivedas cognitive (Nardo,2001).

b.)TherelationshipBetween Genetics andCulture in Creating theExperience of a Person of theWorld andProviding Methods by which Culture Grow

Variationsusuallyexistin all theorganisms.Apparently,thisis becauserandommutationhappensin genome of an individualorganism,andcan heinheritedby theoffspring.Throughout a person`slife,thegenome happensthattheyinteractwith thesurroundings to causecertainvariationsin features.Thesurroundings are inclusiveof molecularbiologyin a cell,otherindividuals,othercells,species,populationas wellas abiotic surroundings. Individualorganismwith particularvariantsof featuresmay surviveorreproducemorethan thoseindividualswith othervariantsthusthepopulationevolves. So,thehumanbrainandgenes conceptbecomesmeaninglessifthere is an attemptto separatefrom thecultureitemanatesthusthehumancultureconceptbecomes meaninglesswhenweextractthehuman brainfrom it(Nardo,2001).

References

Nardo,D. (2001). Originof species: Darwin`s theory of evolution.San Diego, Calif: Lucent Books.