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Emerging Technologies

EmergingTechnologies

of

Manhas alwaystriedto usehis knowledgeto makelifeeasierandmorecomfortable.Over the years innovationand breakthrough in sciencehas enabled man torevolutionize lifeon thesurfaceof theEarth. Technology hasplayeda hugerolein shapingdifferentaspectsof moderndaylife.Formanyyearshumanbeingshaveworkedwith materialssuchas stone,woodandmetalwhich havedefinitepropertiesthat limittheir application.Nonethelessthrough ingenuitymanhas managedto diversifytheir useto suithis needs.In the21st centurymakingis workingto modifythesematerialsto meetspecificneeds.Thefutureoffersevenmoreprospectswith manengrossedin developingsmarttechnologies suchas selfcleaningwindows,wearable technologies, selfhealing materials,4D technologies andimplantable technologies(Vandeville, 2014).

SmartMaterials

Smartmaterialsare materialsthat allowgreaterspecificity dueto their abilityto changeandrespondto transientneeds.Itallbeganin the1990s whenmandevelopeda coffeecupthat would changeits colordepending on thedegreeof hotness of theliquidput in it.With thistechnologies manwastryingto imitatenatureandhowitslightlymanipulatesthesurfaceof variousmaterialsto accomplishdazzling outcomes.Forinstance,iridescencethat occursin iridescencebutterfly dueto theeffectof sunlighton across its textured surface,Lotus`sleafwith abilityto cleanitself through its needlelike structureon its surfacewhich repelswaterandrollsdown takingdusttogetherwith itandthewallclimbinggecko thathas million minutehairson its toesthatbranchinto billions of infinitesimalhairsholdsiton theclimbingsurface (Vandeville,2014).

Breakthroughin sciencehas enabledmanto applytheknowledgeof vander Waals(forcesof attractionbetween moleculesof thesamematerial)forcesto makewallclimbing robot.In themodernworldwallclimbingrobotscan be usedin surveillanceby intelligenceagencies,in emergencyrescueandin windowwashingespeciallyin hightowering skyscrapersthatposeimmensechallengesto cleanthem. Selfhealing materialtechnologies imitatethenaturalhealing powerof theskinwhencut.Whenan arteryis inciseditinstantlyconstrictsto preventlossof bloodandplatelets quicklyplugthecutsurface.Selfhealing technologies havea varietyof applicationrangingfrom armorsuchas tanks (Vandeville,2014). WhenAmerica wasfightinginsurgentsin Iraq someof their tankscameunder gunfireattacksandwould easilyleakfuelthatcould be litup andburnthewholemachinery.Atankmadeof selfhealing materialwillimmediatelyseal holemadeby bullets.

Asaforementioned smarttechnologies, imitatenatureandcharacteristicof certain species of plantsandanimalsthat makethem performspecifictasksthatothers cannot perform.Shapeshiftingmaterialsimitatebirdsandtheir characteristicto bendtheir wingsto changeshapeandflightcharacteristics.Thisfeaturehas beenharnessedin productionof airplanes,wherethewingshavemovingpartsandhingesandmechanismsthat disruptthe freeflowof airto adjustthewingsaccordingly.Moderndreamlinerslike Boeing 747 requirestrongwingsthat are rigid,butmanufacturersembedceramic materialin thewingsto enablethem to changeshapein reactionto an electricalcharge.Thesametechnology imitatedfrom birds(wingwarping wasusedby Wright brotherswhentheymadethefirstairplane (Vandeville,2014).

Technologyusedto makejellyfishmimicthecharacteristicof naturaljellyfishto contractits muscleto achievemobilityin water.Thejellyfishrobotis ableto swimdevoidof a motorusingshapememoryalloys(SMA) that altersits shapewhenheated.Shapememoryalloysare madefrom titanium-nickel alloy(Vandeville, 2014). In the1950s, thisalloywasfoundto regainits originalshapeafter itwasstretchedupandthenheated.Itbehavedlike an artificialmuscle.

4DPrinting

4Dprintingtechnology employtheshapememoryplasticsto makeobjectsthat assumedifferentshapesafter printing(self-assembledshapes). In thisprocess,objectof flatformis printedbutitchangesits shapelaterwhenheatis appliedandassumesa givenshape,forexample,a cube.Theinherentcharacteristicf thematerialsto curl,stretch,foldandtwist id determinedby thearchitectureof thematerialsandhowtheyare designed.Designin thiscase,meaningtheir size,location,shapeandorientationin thematrix.Suchpolymers havewideapplicationin themodernlifeforinstancein productionof waterpipes.With abilityto contractandexpandthepipeswould removetheimportanceof a waterpumps, and save many resources used to fuel it (Vandeville, 2014).

Knowledgeof smarttechnology can be appliedin 4D printingof materials.4D printingis printingof materialsthat can changeafter theyhavebeenprinted.Forinstance,printingof a strandof plasticthat is madeof two polymers that responddifferentlyto lightandheat.Asone contracts,theotherexpands.Thematerialthat is producedmaterialswillconsequently folditself into a finalintendedobject.Themainadvantageof 4D printingis thatis helpssavemuchenergywhenproducingobjects (Vandeville,2014).3D has alsorevolutionizedorthodontic anddental deviceindustries.Modelsthat are imprintedusingthe3D technology are usedto makedental devices,surgicalguidesandclearaligners. A3D impressionof an individual’steethandgunarenecessaryto createa moldthat can be appliedin theproductionof dental devicesthrough the3D technology. Additionally, toothbrushes that are tailormadcan be imprintedthatare fittingly angled to getin between theteethandcleanthegum.

Application

e-skinandsuper skin

Smarttechnology can alsobe appliedin theproductionof electronicskin.Thistechnology has beenharnessedin Tokyo University whereelectronicmeshis casedaround thearmofa robotichand.Themeshwrappedaround themechanicalboneof therobotwasembeddedwith pressureandtemperaturesensors. Whentherobotshookhandwith thepatientthee-skin hadthecapacityto measuresomeof theperson’simportantsigns.

E-skinappliedon a personcan be ableto identifysomemedicalconditionsandoffersensitiveandlifelikeprosthetics. Creationof materialsthat havethe capabilityto stretchandbendwithout disruptingtheir conductive propertiescan be integratedinto organicLEDS to producesuper electronicskins.Since thesematerialscan bend,theycan be meticulously rolledover thebodyof humanbeings.Thin-film transistorscan be wrappedin thinlayerson aflexiblematerialgivingtheelectronicskinpropertiessimilarto therealskin.By using4D printingmanufacturerscan applya coatingandcirculatory patternon thethinlayerof transistorsandas suchtheycan conformto anybodyshape.

Additionallythismaterialcan endureconstantbendingandstretching,andcan workin almostallenvironmentssuchas saline environment,in hightemperaturesanda liquidmedium.Thesepropertiesmakeitpossibleforthematerialto functionin thehumanbody.E-skinwith sensors andmonitorscan be wrappedat differentpartsof thebodyto detectdeviationsin thenaturalfunctioning of the body.Forexample,monitorswrappedaround thearmcan detecta patients bloodpressureandpulsewhich might be veryhelpfulduring surgery.Whencoatedwith wirelesstechnologytheelectronicskinwould permitcommunicationwith othere-skins andconnectivity andtransmissionof informationfrom theskinto computers(Vandeville,2014).

NonNewtonian Fluid

Formanyyears,theapplicationof Newtonian fluidshas beenhamperedby its viscosity.Evidentlyithas beenverydifficultto movedifferentobjectson thesefluids.Thatdepictsthepropertiesof Newtonian fluids.Technological advancementsin the20th centuryhaveeliminatedthisbottleneck. Forinstance,pressurecan be appliedon a mixtureof waterandstarch(Oobleck) to increaseits viscosity.Theviscosityof thisfluidchangesdependingon howfastan individualtriesto moveit.Itslides on thefingers,buta mancan walkon itwithout sinking.Otherfluidsare magnetorheologicalmeaningthatwhencloseto a magnetthefieldin themagnetorheologicalfluidis thickanditbecomesthinas soonas itmovesawayfrom themagneticfield(Vandeville,2014). Magnetorheological fluidsare appliedin themanufactureof militaryautomobiles,bridgeconstructionto eliminatethevibrationcausedby ghastlyweatherandwind,andin buildingandconstructionindustryto overcometheforcesofan earthquake.

BendableBatteries

Researchersin Korea havecomeup with a lithium bendable batterywhich willbe thefirstprintablebattery.Thisbatterycan be usedto chargecellphonesandotherwearable technologies, suchas nonmaterial thatcan be appliedin anyfacade to formfluid-like polymer electrolyte that are solidandnot liquid.3D technology can be appliedin theproductionof thesematerialssuchas a lithium battery(Vandeville,2014). Thebatteryshall be verysmallin size,comparableto thevolumeof a grainof sand.There are variousfieldswherethe nanoscaleprintingcan be applied,rangingfrom makinginsect-sized robots,andminuscule cameras to smallmedicalimplants. 3D printedbatteriescan alsobe of greatusein thedevelopmentof wearable technologies suchas smart–phone wrist watches.

Reference

Vandeville,J. (2014). : What’s New?