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Ethics and Data Collection in Human Research

ETHICS AND DATA COLLECTION IN HUMAN RESEARCH 4

Ethicsand Data Collection in Human Research

Question1

Leadingquestions are those questions that are posed to an interviewee by theinterviewer, which seek to encourage a particular answer. Leadingquestions usually have a suggestive way of leading an intervieweeinto providing the answers that are desired, or that go in the way ofthe person collecting data thinking (Lal, 2008). These questions needto be avoided, when collecting data since they may lead to obtaininga biased result in a given research, which is unethical. Besides,when doing human research on sensitive issues, leading questionsshould be avoided since they may lead to stigmatization forinstance, when doing human research on HIV. In addition, leadingquestions are unethical since they cannot be relied on as they canlead the person collecting data on the court bars answeringquestions.

Waysof Avoiding Leading Questions

Thereis a need to avoid these questions when collecting data based onhuman research. There are different ways of avoiding these questions.One such way entails writing and revising the questions that will beused in research (Lal, 2008). When a researcher just writes thequestions to ask while collecting data without revising them, thereis a probability that he/she will pose a leading question. Thus, itis always vital to write and revise the questions that will be usedin collecting data so as to avoid these questions. Another way ofavoiding these questions entails involving a partner prior toconducting a research (Lal, 2008). The purpose of involving a partneris to conduct a research trial with him in order to see if there areany leading questions. This is critical since leading questions maybe identified early enough prior to the real study, which gives anopportunity to eliminate the questions. In addition, these questionscan be avoided by ensuring that enough time is allocated to research.Research that is prepared in a hurry is likely to have leadingquestions because everything is done in a hurry.

Question2

Quantitativeresearch is usually utilized in giving a quantified result of theissue being investigated. This implies that the quantitativeresearch may be used in providing a quantified outcome concerning acertain social problem. For instance, quantitative research can beutilized in researching crime rates in a given society (Dantzker &ampHunter, 2012). In studying the crime rates in a given society,various steps will be involved. The first entails collecting data onthe various forms of crimes. Since there are different forms ofcrimes, crime incidents that are to be included in the study shouldbe defined. For example, while conducting crime study, criminal codetraffic crimes and Federal Statute crimes like drug offenses may beexcluded. The data concerning the various forms of crimes relating toa certain period of time can be obtained from the crimes department.Since collecting such information from different regions can consumea lot of time, it is appropriate to use the data that the crimesdepartment has filed. After receiving the various forms of crimes,the crimes should be added in order to come up with the total numberof crimes within the required period. The third step entailsobtaining data on the total population in the society. The fourthstep entails dividing the total number of crimes with the entirepopulation to obtain the crime rate.

References

Lal,D. D. K. (2008). Doingsocial research: A source book for preparing dissertation.Delhi: Kalpaz Publications.

Dantzker,M. L., &amp Hunter, R. D. (2012). Researchmethods for criminology and criminal justice.Sudbury, Mass: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.