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Ethnography and African Diaspora


Ethnographyand African Diaspora

Societieshave, since time immemorial, been grouped into distinctive categoriesthat have unique features such as norms, beliefs and customs. Whilethere are variations in the features and characteristics ofindividuals even within the same cultural groups, it is evident thatthere is always an element of homogeneity with the different peoplehaving similar values and customs. This underlines the fact that ifthe cultural group was to stand for a particular aspect or oppose it,it would be likely to do that in unison or at least with the supportof a majority of a large proportion of the society. This, however,does not mean that there never arise issues or phenomena that arequestionable or controversial to a large proportion of the society.Indeed, this is the only way in which a society can undergo changeand growth. One of the most controversial issues in the contemporaryhuman society revolves around sexuality. This is especially withregard to sexual preferences of individuals. Indeed, despite theincreased modernization and globalization, issues pertaining tosexuality continue being frowned upon especially in instances wherethey touch on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)organizations. Of course, the acceptance of such sexual preferencesremains varied in different social groups with conservative societiesbeing particularly harsh towards such organizations. Irrespective ofthe opinions regarding matters of sexuality, it is evident that thevariations in attitudes towards the same underline the culturaldiversity of individuals. Nowhere is this cultural diversity moreevident than in the schools. In the age of globalization, there hasbeen an increased blending of individuals from different culturalbackgrounds and with varying values, norms and customs.Unfortunately, there have been concerns that the composition of theteaching force in the country has been unable to keep pace with thechanges in the composition of classrooms. Similarly, there areconcerns that a large number of pre-service teachers are notsufficiently prepared to work with students who are from diversecultures, mainly because teacher education programs, more often thannot, take up a one-size-fits-all, monocultural approach topreparation while paying no attention to considerations such asgender, race and class. This failure to adapt to these changes hasbeen largely evident among African Americans. Indeed, research hasshown that African American women seeking preparation are immenselyimpacted by the singular approach or strategy of teacher education,while has an impact on their experience to training. This, as aconsequence, results in their being underserved in teacher educationprograms. Scholars have underlined the necessity of designing teachereducation programs in a manner that fosters culturally appropriatepractices in Pre-service teachers, especially considering theimperative nature of equipping teachers to meet the needs and desiresof culturally diverse learners in class.

Needlessto say, volumes of literature have been written in an effort toexplore the visibility and invisibility of LGBT groups, as well asthe roles of teachers in enhancing cultural sensitivity when teachingin culturally diverse classrooms. This paper explores ethnographicaltexts that examine these two aspects. Ethnography is a term thatunderlines a research method that is designed to explore culturalphenomena in which the researcher examines society or a culturalgroup from a particular point of view that is, essentially thesubject of the study. Ethnography, in essence, is a technique forrepresenting in writing and graphically the culture of a particulargroup. The subsequent case report or field study is a reflection ofthe knowledge and system of meanings pertaining to the lives of thecultural group. In all instances, typical ethnography should bereflexive and make considerable contribution to the comprehension ofthe social life pertaining to human beings, express credible andexcellent reality and even have an aesthetic or visual impact on thereader. This paper examines two ethnographical texts that explorethese issues. The texts include Currier Ashley’s “Outin Africa: LGBT Organizing in Namibia and South Africa”and Rachel Dunbar’s “FindingTheir Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American WomenEducators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally RelevantPedagogues”.

Briefsummary of the two texts

AshleyCourier’s “Outin Africa: LGBT Organizing in Namibia and South Africa”is based on the persistent homophobic episodes that have beenprevalent in Africa and that have graced the Euro-American mediascreens in the recent past. Largely composed of conservativesocieties, there have been numerous cases where individuals thatsubscribe to homosexuality are severely punished. For instance, theMalawian government arrested same-sex couples that were celebratingan engagement, whereas the Ugandan government had proposed thathomosexuals be punished with death. A seemingly large number oflesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) South Africans havebeen raped and even murdered in some cases. However, barely visiblein the media parade are the Africans who fall within the category ofLGBT. Indeed, most submerged in this discussion is the politicalactivism that is pro-LGBT that exists in varied parts of thecontinent. “Out in Africa” takes on a careful examination of suchactivism as has been playing out recently in Namibia and SouthAfrica. This book undertakes an in-depth examination on the manner inwhich both countries have been establishing invisibility andvisibility. Of particular note is the fact that LGBT organizations inthe two countries make use of western terminology and ideaspertaining to identity so as to obtain some funding. On the samenote, they have to deal with the view in a large proportion of thesecountries that they are “un-African”. However, the two countriesare not similar with regard to the economic and sociopoliticalcondition. This has had an impact on the manner in which activists inthe two countries continue campaigning for the rights of the lesbian,gay, bisexual and transgender community. In Namibia, the LGBTactivists have been fighting against rulings made by the leadingpolitical party, which have been extremely homophobic with rhetoricenforcing that1.This may be contrasted with the South African case, where members ofthe black LGBT community are protected by the constitution, in whichcase they are much more visible and have incredible activism. This,however, does not mean that there are not hiccups in the activism.Indeed, there have been cases involving homophobic violence that isbased on gender and sexual nonconformity.

Currierexamines the historical backgrounds pertaining to these socialmovements, as well as the strategies that they pursue in order toattain the claims of African LGBT communities to complete citizenshipin spite of the treacherous and unfavorable political tides.Similarly, the book answers the question on the occasions in whichAfrican LGBT activists carry out strategic decisions get out ofpublic limelight as a result of safety concerns, or even the mannerin which they confront the dubious but persistent intra-societalclaims that same-sex-relations are inherently un-African, an outsideimposition and a concoction of the western countries or culture2.Through the social movement theory lens, Currier explores “how,when and why” these movements in Namibia and post-apartheid SouthAfrica foster intentional public invisibility and visibility asstrategies aimed at achieving LGBT equality. In this regard, theauthor defines strategic public visibility as the act of making acertain item visible to a particular target audience so as to allowthat audience to respond in a certain manner3.Of particular note is the fact that Currier’s study is not based onthe assumption that Namibian and South African LGBT movements alwayshave a craving for public visibility as a technique or strategy fororganizing, rather her ethnographic observation of four LGBTorganization in Namibia and South Africa, probe of numerousorganizational files and media articles, coupled with interviews withnumerous individual advocates reveal the manner in which thesemovements make strategic pursuit of invisibility and visibility atvaried instances subject to political or other considerations.

RachelDunbar’s “FindingTheir Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American WomenEducators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally RelevantPedagogues”,on the other hand, details a qualitative study that was aimed atexploring the nature of diversity preparation pertaining to fiveAfrican American women, as well as their teaching experiences aftercompleting their educational training. The subsequent criticalethnographic case studies were framed theoretically in womanism,black feminist thought and culturally relevant pedagogy. In thequalitative study, data was collected from group and individualinterviews and classroom observations. Data analysis was carried outusing open coding and produced three overarching themes. First, therewas the manner in which the women imbued perspectives into theirpractices in the classroom. The second theme revolved around theformal diversity preparation that women teachers obtained from theiruniversity education, while the third theme underlined the individualperspectives of the women regarding their classroom practices. Ofparticular note is the fact that the experiences encountered by theyoung women had a significant influence on their comprehension ofculture, as well as its effects on learning for different studentpopulations. On the same note, the study showed that the teachereducators needed to reconsider the manner in which the teachereducation programs are designed in an effort to enhance thepreparation of minority pre-service teachers to teach classrooms thatare composed of culturally diverse students.

Structureof the Ethnography

Anyethnography may be structured either as a narrative, report, oranalysis. However, given the interconnections between these threestructures, it is often difficult to say the structure to which aparticular ethnography subscribes. Indeed, in most cases,ethnographical representations do not take on a distinctive or asingle structure rather it combines the three structures. Any writingtakes the form of a narrative or incorporates narrative aspects.Nevertheless, the narrative genre or structure is distinctivelystructured in form of a story, in which case it is story telling.Similarly, the report structure involves the “unardorned”description and presentation of information. As much as the reportstructure must involve the analysis of information such as processes,dynamics and results outlined in the report, the analysis isprimarily structured by explanation rather than interpretation. Theanalysis structure takes the form of a narrative as it incorporatesnarrative elements, and involves some form of reporting as it has todescribe information presented in the paper. However, the keydifference revolves around the fact that the fact that analysis mustbe predominantly structured in the notion of interpretation ratherthan explanation.

Currier’s“Out in Africa” has taken a report structure where it explainsthe results of a study that the author carries out on LGBT movementsin Namibia and South Africa. More often than not, non-fiction,fiction, journalism, authors and writers exhibit African communitiesas devoid of agencies. However, this well-researched and methodicallysound book gets away from this course and portrays the presence ofagency in Africa. Currier concentrates on Namibian and South AfricanLGBT activists as actors that are striving (and struggling) todetermine their political and social fate using strategic choices. Asstated earlier, report structures also take up narrative elements.Recognizing the importance of the study, Currier makes use ofvisibility strategies pertaining to the organization of LGBT inNamibia and post-apartheid to tell their story. Testament to thenarrative structure that the report takes up is the presentation ofthe historical overview of the Namibian and South African LGBTorganizing. Currier outlines the manner in which the public anti-gaydeclarations by Namibian political leaders in the 90s had theunlikely (and unintended) impact of triggering the budding NamibianLGBT movement as it aimed at fostering public visibility in an effortto combat the political homophobia. Similarly, Currier makes afascinating historical explanation of the manner in which racialdynamics in the apartheid South Africa influenced the strategicvisibility of LGBT organizers. She notes that in the 60s, white gaymen and lesbians in South Africa came out from invisibility positionsto oppose the apartheid laws that tended to criminalise sexualminorities4.With increased strength of the anti-apartheid struggle in the 70s and80s, white gay men and lesbians were forced to confront thevisibility dilemma especially considering that the internationalcommunity had began to strongly root itself in camaraderie with blackSouth Africans. The dilemma involved the choices that they could havemade. First, they could choose to foster public visibility that cameout against the racialist that was espoused by the apartheid state5.Alternatively, they could cut links with the racial grievances thatwere advanced by the black anti-apartheid racial grievances. Curriernotes that this group chose the apolitical visibility or the laterchoice, which could be credited with the racism that was prevalent inthe white LGBT movement. Of particular note is the fact that thechoice, eventually became untenable in the face of the increasinganti-apartheid sentiments. LGBT advocates started doing away withthis choice and established inclusive visibility strategies that werein line with the antiapartheid organizing. As at the end of the 80s,the South African LGBT movement, which was multiracial, worked handin hand with the anti-apartheid political leaders in an effort toensure the incorporation of the LGBT’s rights in the newconstitution of South Africa.

Curriergoes on to narrate how violence meted against lesbians gave rise totwo lesbian organizations in the country. This is contrasted with theNamibian case, in which lesbians had to face increased homophobicpolitical rhetoric. The Namibian lesbians, however, were unafraid ofbeing targeted for physical injury, in which case the organizationcalled Sister Namibia established strategic orientation tovisibility. Currier later notes that in spite of the initialorientations neither organization functioned exclusively in the realmof strategic invisibility or visibility as time went on.

However,Dunbar’s ethnography “Findingtheir way”takes on an analytical structure where it explores how five Africanwomen have taken diversity preparation, as well as their teachingexperiences after completing their teacher education training. Itwould, essentially, be right to conclude that the study was aimed atdetermining the efficacy of teacher education training in preparingteachers to operate in environments where they come across diversepopulations of students. From the study, the author (or researcher)concluded that a large number of schools do not fit into a commonspace with the oppositional pedagogy or even teaching practices thatare a reflection of mainstream ideology. Similarly, the author notedthat schools whose curriculum mandates leaves no room for authenticcultural integration and innovation may not be open to deviation fromthe standard or set-up plan, in which case, such deviation may beseen as non-compliance. In essence, institutions of education shouldallow for increased integration of practices that are culturallyrelevant in the curriculum so as to enable students to beappropriately exposed to a curriculum that makes them the center oflearning.

Onthe same note, Dunbar notes that the young women were finding itdifficult to cope in the environment that was rife with ignorance ofacts of alienation. This is explained by the fact that the women camefrom cultures that strongly encouraged the exchange of knowledge ascolored women6.These sentiments may be explained by Cozart and Price (2005) whonoted that African American women felt alienated, which forces themto come up with coping mechanism so as to combat the challenges theyencounter in their teacher education program. Similarly, it is wellnoted by Dilworth and Brown (2008) that racially ethnic groups havedifferent ways for responding to the manner in which they aretreated. Women of color, in particular, view themselves as outsidersin the course of their University experience, a factor that affectsthe colored individuals who get into institutions of higherlearning7.Of particular note is the fact that minorities persistently representa minute proportion of individuals who attain university educationand especially individuals in the education profession, in which casethey must have the capacity to gradually acknowledge the role thatthey play in their places if learning.


Thenotion of the influences of Diaspora has been explored widely in alarge number of literary works. The term Diaspora underlines thescattered population that has a shared origin in smaller geographicalareas. It may also be defined as historical mass dispersions that arenot voluntary in nature. Such would be the case for Jews in Europe,Messenians during the Spartan rule or even the African Trans-Atlanticslave trade. One of the key differences between the works of Currierand Dunbar revolves around the engagement of the concept of Diaspora.

Itis worth noting that Dunbar’s “Finding their Way” isessentially concentrating of African Americans, in which case she isexamining Africans in Diaspora. This is an extremely reasonableassumption to make especially considering that a large proportion ofAfrican Americans are descendants of slaves who were forcefully takenfrom Africa to America to provide cheap and abundant labor in thecotton farms especially in the South. As much as these AfricanAmericans may have stayed in the continent and the country for a longtime (actually more than 200 years), they are still a minoritycommunity who have distinctive traits. She notes that the studentpopulation is approaching 70% ethnic minority in which case everystudent has linguistic and cultural needs that are different fromthose of the non-minority students. In essence, it is imperative thatthe teaching force in the country is equipped with sufficienttraining that would enable it to address the distinctive traits ofthe increasingly diverse population so as to meet the linguistic andcultural needs of these students. The needs may include healthrelated concerns, feelings of belonging, study skills, the capacityto negotiate dealing with academic vs. home settings or even studyskills. While there has been an increase in the student demographics,there has not been a matching change in the teacher demographics.Indeed, African Americans, as a minority community, only contributeto 7.8% of the teaching workforce. This is worsened by the deficiencyof sufficient preparation of the teachers to function in diverseclassrooms especially considering the adoption of a one-size-fits-allapproach to learning in the teacher education programs. It is wellnoted that a large proportion of the teacher education programs isignorant of the influence of race, language and class, culture andgender, in which case the resultant teachers are not sufficientlysensitive to the cultural tools and knowledge that students bring inthe classroom, which result from their cultural group interactions.The concentration on the African American women is undoubtedlyreflective of the concept of Diaspora as they usually find that theirexperiences in the monocultural teacher education programs are subparand are usually not sufficiently served in the course of thetraining. Indeed, they are subjected to one-sided preparation that isa reflection of the dominant culture’s ideology, which neglects totake care of the manner in which the minorities’ cultural capitalaffects the future of student learning. Of course, the key questionrevolves around the criteria that may serve as the foundation fordiasporic identity other than their continuities from Africa. Thisbegs the question on who African Diaspora members are and the thingsthat make them be categorized as so. It goes without saying thatindividuals and cultural groups draw some political and culturalinspiration from one another so as to continue assigning tothemselves or imagining themselves as African or black8.All in all, the Diaspora model reconnects Africa to its peoples thatare scattered in different parts of the globe, globalizes thecontinent and repositions it in world history9.This, however, does not make it easy to conceptualize the AfricanDiaspora.

Currier’stext “Out in Africa” does not explicitly explore the concept ofDiaspora in any way. However, there are some aspects that may beinterpreted within similar parameters. First, it is well noted thatthe book is premised on the notion that homosexuality is a foreignbehavior. All issues that touch on LGBT and especially homosexualityare not only considered obnoxious but also foreign and un-African10.This may essentially explain why they are usually frowned upon by alarge proportion of the African population not just in South Africaand Namibia but the entire continent. Indeed, the author has simplycircled around or chosen these two countries as her subjects of studybut it goes without saying that similar sentiments would be likely tobe elicited in other parts of the continent. This is exactly whyindividuals subscribing to LGBT movements have been victims of publicridicule, arrests, murders, rapes and even violent beatings. Currierhas noted that LGBT activists in the two countries have been strivingto dispel the narrative that insinuates that homosexuality isun-African pervading the mainstream discourse in a large number ofAfrican societies. The consideration of homosexuality as a westernimport that is nonexistent in the African culture has created thenotion that it is impossible for authentic African sexual and genderminorities to exist. The homophobic discourse results in “controllingvisibilities” for advocates of African LGBT. The activists fight tobe viewed as authentically African, Namibian or South African andLGBT all simultaneously.

Nevertheless,the fact that such individuals are considered as aping westernculture can only mean that they have scattered from the dominantgroup in the western countries. Indeed, it is well noted that rightstouching on lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender individuals arewell enshrined in a large number of western countries. Indeed, theyare largely considered basic rights and freedoms in these countries,in which case there is unlikely to be much hullabaloo about anyindividual who subscribes to such tendencies11.However, the same cannot be said of African countries. Indeed,countries such as Uganda had already proposed the amendment of theirconstitution to as to enable homosexuals to be sentenced to death.This underlines the notion that homosexuals are a minority in thesecountries at least as far as being in public is concerned.

Further,the Diaspora nature of these groups is complemented by the fact thatthe activists are using historically western gender identity andsexuality terms in their advocacy, establish internationalpartnerships and take funding from their northern donors therebyleaving them susceptible or vulnerable to homophobic accusations tothe effect that they are simply puppets of western masters aimed atpropagating the western agenda.

Asmuch as the text does not primarily revolve around African Diaspora,it makes an immense contribution to the comprehension of the same.This is especially with regard to the conservative nature of theAfrican society. African Diaspora are bound to be unreceptive tochanges especially in instances where their customs are at stake. Indeed, even in instances where they have stayed out of theiroriginal countries for a long time, it is reasonable to expect thatthey will subscribe to the same things that their brothers andsisters it the African continent subscribe. Nevertheless, Appiahnotes that as globalization takes place, there is an even spread ofvaried cultures, in which case every other place consists ofdiversified cultures. This means that instead of every placeincorporating distinctive and outdated (and especially, not the best)institutions, they incorporate and incredible and healthy combinationof some of the best institutions as the best and most fascinatingaspect of a culture is brought out12.

Forthe two texts, it would appear that the African Diaspora would fitthe fairly critical definition of the term Diaspora the domain ofdispersed and disseminated identities that emanate from the loss ofone13.

MostCompelling Aspect of the Ethnographic Evidence

Oneof the most compelling ethnographic evidence in Currier’s textrevolves around the political opportunities that the LGBT missed forvisibilities especially with regard to efforts for law reforms.Indeed, South African LGBT organizations have failed to quickly usepublic visibility strategies after a constitutional court in thecountry made a ruling that favored marriage equality. Of particularnote are the assumptions that underlie the questions pertaining tomissed opportunities for visibility. One of the key assertions thatthe author makes regards the perception of opportunity. Sheencourages social movement scholars to comprehend the fact that thereare variations in the perception of opportunities between them andactivists. Indeed, scholars may knowingly and unknowingly imposeNorthern LGBT organizing paradigm to global South simply by makingassumptions that the LGBT movements should plan to launch law reformcampaigns. On the same note, LGBT activists often have to weigh thelimitations and benefits pertaining to pursuing public visibility onthe basis of law reform efforts. Factors such as deficiency oflegislative receptivity and or judicial capacity may cause a largenumber of these LGBT organizers and activists to not see law reformefforts as appropriately opportune exercises for visibility.

Currieris extremely successful in connecting this local story to broadersocial processes. This is especially considering that the topic thatshe is examining is, by all means, a global phenomenon. Indeed, evenin western societies where issues pertaining to LGBT are consideredbasic rights and freedoms, it is evident that they remaincontroversial and motive14.In essence, Currier has examined the broader issues even in thehistory of the countries that may have contributed to the prevailingattitudes towards visibility in these two countries. For instance, itis difficult to talk about the place of LGBT movements ororganizations in South Africa without commenting about apartheid andthe anti-apartheid movements15.

Inthe case of Dunbar’s “Findingtheir Way”,the most compelling thing in the text may be insinuation that theblack feminist thought provides an avenue through which AfricanAmerican women among other marginalized groups would engage inmeaningful dialogue. Further, it is well noted that the AfricanAmerican women have the capacity to influence the restructuring ofthe teaching plans as well as encourage other minority groups to comeout and share their experiences16.Such disclosures are outlets for despair and frustration and alsoserve as learning tools. They show that power of an individual’sstory in bringing change to other people not necessarily in the samecultural group.

Asmuch as the study is concentrating primarily on the African Americanwomen in the teaching profession, the findings are undoubtedlyapplicable to women from other minority groups even in otherprofessions. This is essentially the connection between the phenomenaexamined in the study and other social issues especially regardingthe place of women in the society. The exploration of women inteaching profession also underlines the fact that the problem maywell have pervaded other aspects of the society especiallyconsidering that educational institutions imbue the lessons thatindividuals in other professions apply in their careers17.Similarly, the women who participated in the study underlined theirinclination to taking care of their students. They consider thisaspect as natural to them as they saw the students as their ownchildren. However, this trait was not considered as having beenimbued in them in their teacher education program rather the womenwere socialized in this way in their own cultures prior to becomingteachers18.Indeed, this “othermothering” was a reflection of behavior thatthey saw in the women with whom they encountered in their lives andespecially their mothers19.As Mintz notes in the “Introduction”,some early scholars saw the continuities in Afro-American music asgenetic and not cultural in character. Others wondered whether suchbehaviors can be learned from an early age to the extent of survivingeven extremely radical influences at a later time20.While there may be varied interpretations of this element, itunderlines the necessity of cultural relevance in every otherprofession. Further, it is well noted that matters pertaining todiversity are often controversial especially since different peoplehave different values21.This often influences the relationships and attitudes of individualstowards each other not only in the teaching professions but also inother aspects of the society. This should inform the composition ofrelationships between mentors and mentees in any profession, as wellas interrelationships between people even in the social arenas.


A large number of literary works are critical ethnographiesespecially considering that it is sometimes impossible to separatethe ideas and biases of the authors from the works. Criticalethnographies concentrate primarily on the implicit values that areexpressed in ethnographic studies, in which case they focus on theacknowledged biases that may emanate from the implicit values.Researchers that use this approach essentially position themselves asintrinsically connected to the individuals that are being studied inwhich case they cannot be separated from their context. Further,critical ethnographers not only purport to speak on the subjects’behalf but also strive to articulate and recognize their perspectiveas a way of acknowledging the biases emanating from theirinstitutional standpoints, histories, and limitations.

Dunbar’s“Finding their Way” is a critical ethnography especiallyconsidering the ethnical responsibility for addressing processes ofunfairness in the teaching profession. Dunbar acknowledges thatminority groups often have distinctive needs pertaining to languageand culture, needs that should be addressed or met so as to enhancelearning and growth22.In most cases, however, the fact that these students are in minoritygroups means that their needs are often not met. School curriculumsare devised in a one-size-fits-all approach, mostly taking intoconsideration the needs of the dominant communities23.On the same note, a large number of teacher education programs arestructured in a rigid manner and also target the dominant groups.This means that the needs of minorities are often ignored andunderserved in a large number of schools24.This, undoubtedly, puts individuals from majority dominant cultureson a higher pedestal than those from minority communities. This maybe seen as an affront to justice, equality and fairness in thecontemporary human society. In essence, it is imperative thatcultural competence is implemented in the teaching profession so asto allow for me meeting of minority groups’ needs in the classroom,which would promote equality, justice and fairness.

Currier’sbook “Outin Africa”may not particularly fit the category of a critical ethnography. Asmuch as it outlines the evils that are meted on LGBT groups inNamibia and South Africa among other countries, it is notparticularly aimed at propagating an ethnical responsibility orobligation for addressing processes of injustice and unfairness inthese societies. Nevertheless, the book calls into question thedisparity between the platforms on which the LGBT groups in Africancountries and those in western countries fight for visibility. LGBTgroups in the western countries do not have to grapple with negativepublicity or even violence, arrests in their countries. Indeed, suchgroups do not have visibility as their goal as such rights arealready guaranteed in their countries. However, the LGBT groups inAfrican countries are not viewed in the same way25.The conservative societies in these countries are often frowning uponsuch groups. This is worsened by the fact that there are no realconstitutional safeguards for individuals who perpetrate violence onLGBT organizations26.Further, the fact that such groups are yet to be financially stableor to support themselves creates the impression that they areinstruments through which colonialism will be enacted in the Africancountries. This is complicated even more by the fact that the AfricanLGBT groups usually borrow gender and sexuality terminologies fromtheir western counterparts, in which case they are seen as off-shootsof the same, thereby cementing the notion that they are foreign.These are the things that the author states should be considered whenviewing any opportunity as a missed chance for visibility.


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1 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

2 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

3 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

4 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

5 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

6 Dunbar, R. B (2009). “Finding Their Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American Women Educators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally Relevant Pedagogues”. Early Childhood Dissertations, Paper 7

7 Dilworth, M. E.. &amp Brown, A. L. (2008). Teachers of color: Quality and effective teachers one way or another. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. J. McInyre, &amp K. E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing context (3rd ed.) (pp. 424-444). New York: Routledge, Taylor &amp Francis Group a&amp The Assocaition of Teacher Eduators.

8 Gordon, T. Edmund &amp Anderson, Mark (1999). The African Diaspora: Toward an ethnography of Diasporic Identification. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 112, No. 445, pp. 282-296

9 Zeleza, T.P (2010). Reconceptualizing African Diasporas: Notes From A Historian. Transforming Anthropology, Vol. 18, Number 1, pp. 74–78,

10 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

11 Wiedeman, C. R. (2002). Teacher preparation, social justice, equity: A review of the literature. Equity and Excellence in Education, 35(3), 200-211

12 Appiah, A.K (2006). The case for contamination. The New York Times

13 Gordon, T. Edmund &amp Anderson, Mark (1999). The African Diaspora: Toward an ethnography of Diasporic Identification. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 112, No. 445, pp. 282-296

14 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

15 Sheller, M. &amp J. Urry (2006), ‘Mobile transformations of “public” and “private” life’, Theory, Culture &amp Society 20 (3): 107-125

16 Stephen, D. P. &amp Phillips, L. (2005). Integrating Black feminist thought into conceptual frameworks of African American adolescent women’s sexual scripting processes. Sexualities, Evolution and Genders, 7(1), 37-55.

17 Skrennty, J. D., S. Chan, J. Fox &amp D. Kim (2007), ‘Defining nations in Asia and Europe: A comparative analysis of ethnic return migration policy’, International Migration Review 41 (4): 793-825.

18 Dunbar, R. B (2009). “Finding Their Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American Women Educators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally Relevant Pedagogues”. Early Childhood Dissertations, Paper 7

19 Dunbar, R. B (2009). “Finding Their Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American Women Educators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally Relevant Pedagogues”. Early Childhood Dissertations, Paper 7

20 Mintz, S.W (1990). Introduction. In “The Myth of the Negro Past”. New York: Beacon press

21 Ladson-Billings, G. (2005). Is the team all right?: Diversity and teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 56, 229-234.

22 Dunbar, R. B (2009). “Finding Their Way: A Critical Ethnography of Five African American Women Educators` Early Experiences to Develop Into Culturally Relevant Pedagogues”. Early Childhood Dissertations, Paper 7

23 Stephen, D. P. &amp Phillips, L. (2005). Integrating Black feminist thought into conceptual frameworks of African American adolescent women’s sexual scripting processes. Sexualities, Evolution and Genders, 7(1), 37-55.

24 Halpern, R. (2002). A different kind of child development institution: The history of after-school programs for low-income children. Teachers College Record, 104(2), 178-211.

25 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press

26 Currier, A (2012). Out in Africa: LGBT organizing in Namibia and South Africa. New York: Univ. of Minnesota Press