Examine the evolution of counseling and counseling psychology; include
EVOLUTION OF COUNSELING AND COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY 5
Examinethe evolution of counseling and counseling psychology include thesimilarities and the differences, and the influence of thedevelopment in history over time upon current practice
Counselingaffirms the old adage that a problem shared is a problem halved.Counseling, which is the provision of guidance to people withpersonal problems, has come a long way to its present day status(Zunker, 2005). Counseling dates back to the times when people wouldgather together and share their problems, dreams and experiences.However, with the coming of the church, the priests would offer someform of advice or counseling to the members of the church. It iscritical to mention that this was not the end of the evolution ofcounseling. In the 1890s, the counseling profession took a twist whenSigmund Freud developed the psychoanalysis theory. According to thetheory, individuals with personal problems were to report to apsychoanalyst, who had the knowledge of the subconscious part of themind (Zunker, 2005).
However,it is imperative to note that the term counseling was not eminent atthe time, and it came to the limelight in the 1960s. In the 1950s thecounseling profession took a huge step of development. During theWorld War II, a majority of the therapies that were used to treattraumatized soldiers formed the basis of the current counselingprofession (Menninger & Nemiah, 2010). The schools of counselingthat were developed during that time include Psychoanalytical,Behaviorist, and Humanistic. However, it critical to note that thefield of counseling has had numerous developments since the 1950s andit continues to develop. Counselors and psychologists continue toresearch on why humans behave the way they do, and why they areunique.
Counselingpsychology has been defined as specialty in the field of psychologythat seeks to improve the personal wellbeing and interpersonalwellbeing of individuals across their lifespan (Blocher, 2006).Counseling psychology concentrate on a variety of issues ranging fromhealth, educational, emotional, social and organizational. Thisspecialty is similar in some ways and different also from counseling.It is evident that both seek to improve the status of individualsthrough provision of guidance and advice. However, the two aredifferent in that counseling psychology is an entire specialty thatcomprises various fields, whereas counseling a single field undercounseling psychology. Counseling psychology is a specialty thatoffers training to individuals aspiring to be counselors who in turnoffer counseling services. It is therefore evident that counselingdepends on counseling psychology in order to achieve its objectivesof providing guidance and advice.
Counselingpsychology has come a long way in its development. Like a majority ofthe psychology specialties, counseling psychology started during andafter the World War II. The Veterans Administration started thecounseling psychology specialty in the 1940s and the 1950s (Blocher,2006). This formed the initial start and subsequent development ofthe specialty was based on this formation. It was also during thesame period that the division of counseling psychology was started inthe American Psychological Association, APA, was started.
Thecreation of the above specialty and division in the APA fostered thestart of counselor training in PhD across various universities in theUnited States such as Ohio State University, University of Minnesota,University of Maryland, and Columbia University (Whiteley, 2009).Since then, the specialty has gone through various developments overthe decades (Altmaier & Hansen, 2012). The specialty hasdiversified to other countries around the world. It is critical topoint out that research has indicated that there are varioustradition and indigenous healing and counseling methods that arestill in use in some western and non-western countries.
Thedevelopment and evolution of counseling and counseling psychology hasbeen critical to the current status of the two aspects. Theprinciples and theories of counseling that were developed during theWorld War II continue to be used to date. The current practice incounseling and counseling psychology are largely dependent on theprinciples and the theories that were developed during the inceptionstages of these fields.
Altmaier,E. M., & Hansen, J.-I. C. (2012). TheOxford handbook of counseling psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blocher,D. (2006). TheEvolution of Counseling Psychology.New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Menninger,R. W., & Nemiah, J. C. (2010). Americanpsychiatry after World War II: (1944- 1994).Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Whiteley,J. M. (2009). Counselingpsychology: A historical perspective.Schenectady, NY: Character Research Press.
Zunker,V. G. (2005). CareerCounseling: A Holistic Approach.Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.