Health Education 4
Significanceof planning models and strategies in health education
Therational model:This model is also known as knowledge, attitudes, and practicesmodel. It is based o the assumption that a person has a highlikelihood of changing his or her behavior upon the increment of hisor her knowledge.
Healthbelief model:This model explains decision-making and subsequent behavior of humanhealth. It is based on six constructs that include benefits andbarriers, perceived susceptibility, cues to action, severity, andself-efficacy (McKenzie, Neiger, & Smeltzer, 2005).
Transtheoreticalmodel of change:this model view behavior change as a gradual progress through aseries of five stages, which include action, preparation,maintenance, pre-contemplation, and contemplation. Health educatorscan provide intervention strategies based on the stage of change of aparticular person, in the most effective manner, since differentpeople have varying informational needs at each stage.
Activatedhealth education model:This model engages individuals in the assessment of their health inan active and effective way. It provides information and createsawareness of a specific target behavior, facilitate theidentification of the target behavior, as well as clarify anindividual’s health values in order to develop a customized planbehavior change (McKenzie et al., 2005).Componentsof program planning
Participantinvolvement: all members of a community or society should be involvedin all phases of a programme’s development, which include planningand implementing programme activities, identifying the need of acommunity, enlisting the aid of society organizations, and evaluatingresults.
Planning:This component entails the identification of health problems in asociety that can be overcome or prevented through communityintervention, identifying target behavior, building a cohesiveplanning group deciding how stakeholders will be involved, andformulating goals.
Alteringcommunity norms:health education programme should have the ability to alterorganizational or community standard of behavior and norms in orderto have a vital impact on the whole community or organization(Andersen, Bridges-Web, & Chancellor, 2006). In connection tothis, a good proportion of the members of a community or organizationshould be exposed to programme messages or to some extent be involvedin programme activities.
Anintegrated programme:any programme that health educators embrace should be integrated andeach component of the programme should reinforce other components.
Long-termchange:any health education progamme should have a design that helps achievestable and lasting changes in health behavior. Therefore, longer-termfunding of programmes as well as development of a permanent healtheducation should be implemented within a society or community.
Needsand resource assessment:It is of immense significance that attention be given to theidentification of heath needs, available resources, and capacities ofa society prior to the implementation of a health educationinitiative.
Researchand evaluation:This component plays a key role in the documentation of programmeoutcomes and effects as well as in the description of the programmeformation, cost-effectiveness, process, and benefits.
PROCEDE-PROCEED:It is a practioneer-driven model that is composed of nine phases. Thefirst five phases incorporate a series of planned assessments thathave the capacity to generate information used in making subsequentdecisions. The series incorporate sifting and sorting (PRECEDE). According to Downie, Fyfe, & Tannahill (2010), the other fourphases incorporate strategic implementation of several actions thatare based on what was learned in the first five phases. This secondcomponent is known as PROCEED.
MATCH(Multilevel Approach to Community Heath) –practioneer-driven modelit is used to influence personal and environmental conditions forcommunity health. It involves five phases that include goalselection, intervention planning, program development,implementation, preparations, and program evaluation (Downie et al.,2010).
CDCynergy-thisis a consumer-based planning health communication planning that usessix phases that involve multiple steps to help planners develop acomprehensive community plan and explore a broad range of possiblestrategies that influence a particular problem.
SMART(SocialMarketing Assessment and Response Tool) – it is a consumer-basedplanning-social marketing planning. It is composed of seven phasesthat include preliminary planning, consumer analysis, marketanalysis, channel analysis, develop interventions, materials andpretest, implementation, and evaluation.Typesof strategies
Educational:include any activities associated with distance learning courses,workshops, classroom-based courses, or seminars.
Healthengineering these are strategies that change the physical or socialenvironment in which people work or live. They may change people’sbehavior by influencing their attitudes, awareness, and knowledge forexample the modification of offerings in vending machines.
Communitymobilization: involve strategies that that incorporate participantsin the change process. They include initiatives such as communitybuilding, building and lobbying, and community advocacy.
Healthpolicy and enforcement: these strategies mandate actions throughrules, policies, regulations, and laws they are implemented toprotect the health of the entire public.
Health-relatedcommunity service: they include tests, services, or treatments thataim at improving the health of the priority group or population(Andersen et al., 2006). These strategies incorporate severalactivities that enable a person to evaluate his or her personal levelof health through the use of screenings, health-risk appraisal, andself examination.Bestmodel and strategies for:
Community:Community mobilization, health related community service strategies.
School: health-related community service.
Healthcare: health-related community service and health policy andenforcement strategies, and MATCH model.
Business/industry:health related community service and health engineering strategies,and SMART model.
College/university:health-related community service, educational, and communitymobilization strategies, and SMART model.
Universityhealth services: health policy and enforcement strategy and communitymobilization strategies, and MATCH model.
Andersen,N.A Bridges-Webb, C, & Chancellor, A.H.B. (2006). Generalpractice in Australia.Sydney: Sydney University Press.
Downie,R.S Fyfe C, & Tannahill, A. (2010). Healthpromotion: models and values.Oxford, Oxford University Press.
McKenzie,J Neiger, B, & Smeltzer, J. (2005). Planning,implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs: a primer.4th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.