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April15, 2014


Informationon genetic testing of Heartdiseaseand how it affectshealth outcomes

Familygenetics makeup are predisposing factor to many sickness amongindividuals especially heart related ailments. These diseases aregenetically passed from one family member to another it may befather to child or from mother to the child. It has never beenclearly established the causal factor but scientist have proved that,the genetic composition within individuals body carries the diseasecomponent to other victims. Heart diseases are the commonestgenetically transmitted, though not all heart diseases are passedfrom family history. In some aspects heart diseases results fromlifestyle habits and environmental factors but the impact of anyfactor varies from individual to individual. However, particularcases of heart diseases are clearly genetic passed from parents tothe children through gene mutation, harmful change or inheritance(Brindle, et al. 2006).

Therefore,knowledge and test of family history on heart disease is veryimportant to understand risk factors for the purpose of earlyintervention measures. Even when individuals appear healthy, constantcheck ups are very important to screen particular cases of diseaseswhose infection may not be noticeable and have effect of running downfamily history. Individuals fail to notice the disease because theymay have lost the family member who had the disease or the particularfamily member may have kept the disease private(Chow, et al. 2008).

Regardlessof this, it is imperative for all individuals have body screeningtests and seek health advice from health practitioners to ascertainrisk factors and level of disease. The first step towards enhancinghealthy family is learning about health of close relatives andchildren this helps to have a family health history that isimportant for future reference. Cardiovascular heart diseases havestrong connection with family history as major risk factor.Individuals with relatives having such disease have high risk ofsuffering from the same. Scientific, research carried out has neverascertained what specific genes that causes such diseases (Bernard,et al. 2007).

However,it has been proved that, early screening of children, young and evenold adults have high chance of ameliorating severe complicationsarising from heart diseases. Screening prevents more than 40% casesof premature heart attacks even if they are genetic. The underlyingmedical observation is that, screening and early information of suchdiseases helps in controlling other risk factors that exacerbate theeffects of the heart disease. Heart diseases risk factors includehigh cholesterol intakes, smoking, high blood pleasure diabetes,heavy weight or obesity and physical inactivity. Therefore,individuals who have positive family history of heart disease shouldtake immediate actions in assessing whole body physical examinationand screening of blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes and getadvice on how to address risk factors such as environment, lifestylehabits and exercises (Brindle, et al. 2006).

Strategiesfor health promotion based on the disease

Heartrelated problems are major causes of death in many countriesspecifically because heart complications arise from otherpredisposing factors far from heart ailments. This does not mean thatall heart diseases are external but most risks factors are external.The prevalence rate and predisposing factors varies slightly inregard to gender, ethnicity, poverty and age. For instance, inchildren many heart problems arise from, smoking, high bloodpleasure, diabetes among others, all developing from adolescence tolife course. Certain ethnic groups, due to cultural environmental andlifestyle factors suffer from heart problems more than others.

However,poor diet and eating habits, smoking and physical inactivity aremajor risks factors that cut across variables. Health Promotionadopted for early interventions for heart diseases should focus on:decreasing smoking, increasing healthy eating habits, increasingphysical activities, preventing high blood pressure, cholesterol,screening and regular assessments (Chow,et al. 2008).

Screeningand Assessment intervention

Screeningprovides early opportunity to collect information and enhanceawareness to individuals on heart disease risks such as smoking,eating habits, alcohol use and physical inactivity, family historyand the stage of the disease if any. They are conducted on young andold people. Training and educating health practitioners and thepublic in monitoring and identifying helps in risk reduction relatedto heart diseases (Bernard,et al. 2007)..

Lifestylechange Intervention

Promotinghealth education on diet, physical activities

Regularhealthy diet and physical activities reduces heart related problemsin great magnitudes. Health practitioners should educate and motivatepeople to adopt healthy behaviors that lower risk levels of heartdiseases. Heavy weight and obesity is a major risk factor of heartailments and diabetes. Excessive body fat in the belly and heartregions raises blood pressure and decrease insulin intake in thebody. As such low body weight, regular physical activities andhealthy eating are important elements of forestalling heart diseases.Programs should be initiated in offices, schools and else where toraise awareness on the importance of mental benefits of physicalactivities. This will enable people make informed and healthierchoices such as sensible eating to avoid obesity, enriching a poordiet, having regular physical activity and desist from smoking andalcohol use (Brindle,et al. 2006).

Alcoholand smoking cessation program

Aprogram on tobacco smoking and alcohol cessation needs to be adoptedto prevent people from smoking, help smokers cease and protect nonsmokers from tobacco smoke. Smoking is a major risks factor ofcoronary disease(Bernard, et al. 2007).

Counselingand community campaigns intervention

Counselingand therapy sessions are helpful health promotion strategies for allindividuals at risk of heart diseases. These sessions should beorganized in all grade schools, workplaces, church and public forums.Counseling has influential element on individual behaviors throughpsychological orientation. For instance alcoholic and smoke addictscan benefit a lot form these therapy sessions. In other aspectsrehabilitation centers can be used to alleviate critical conditionsarising from substance use in relation to heart diseases. Thesecounseling sessions are important as more information and advice aregiven in regard to lifestyle change.

Evidenceshows that, multi-component intervention such nutrition education,prescription for physical exercises, behavior modifications,materials for self study, dietary prescription, and smoking, alcoholand obesity therapies works well in workplace setting. However,individual counseling and therapy on smoking and alcohol use couldwork well with individuals. Community campaigns and health fairs arealso important health promotion strategies that can be employed toeducate and train people on lifestyle and behaviors that canpredispose them to heart diseases(Brindle, et al. 2006).


Chow,C.K., A.C.H. Pell, A. Walker, C. O`Dowd, A.F. Dominiczak, and J.P.Pell. 2008 &quotFamiliesof Patients with Premature Coronary Heart Disease: An Obvious butNeglected Target for Primary Prevention.&quotBritishMedical Journal,335:7618(2007) 481-85.&lthttp://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/335/7618/481&gt.

Bernard,S., Brody, E., &amp Lohr, K. 2007, ‘Healthcaredelivery models for heart failure. Quest for Quality and ImprovedPerformance Project’. TheHealth Foundation, Internet resource, http://www.health.org.uk/publications/research reports/heart_failure.html

Brindle,P., Beswick, A., Fahey, T., &amp Ebrahim, S. (2006). ‘Accuracyand impact of risk assessment in the primary prevention ofcardiovascular disease’:a systematic review’. Heart,Internet resource, British Medical Journal,92(12),1752-1759. UK London,