MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
Peoplesuffering from major depressive depression are advised to discusstheir problems with those people whom they trust. Psychotherapy istherefore very important in the treatment of major depressivedepression. They can share their problems with physicians who arelikely to offer professional advice on the way to resolve the matter.Different cases of depression vary in nature and are thereforetreated differently. It is therefore very important that once aperson has been diagnosed to have major depressive depression to beconsistently visiting a physician for counseling. Sometimes, it mayneed the person to change their living environment for sometime untilthey fully recover. Support for such patients is very vital in duringtheir road to recovery. They are supposed to develop a positiveattitude about themselves. They are supposed to raise their selfesteem and it is for this reason that they need too much support andencouragement from those whom they are living with.
Antidepressantscan also be used in the treatment of depression since it happens tobe the quickest way to suppress a major depression and moreespecially in cases where the patient has recurring thoughts tocommit suicide or has already attempted to do so. In many cases,patients with a major depression are likely to respond positively tomedication within a period of two weeks.
Majordepressive disorder is also commonly known as the clinicaldepression, unipolar depression, major depression or recurrentdepression mainly in cases where there have been reported repeatedepisodes on individuals. Major depressive depression is a mentaldisorder that is characterized of lack of interest in things thatmany people find to be enjoyable meaning that the victims have a verylow mood and low self-esteem (NIH, n.d). In this case therefore,major depressive depression is characterized by a number of symptoms.It is a condition that adversely affects a person’s general health,affects his or her family, work or school life (Psych Central Staff,n.d). There are eating and sleeping disorders among the victims.According to recent studies, about 3.4% of people who commit suicidein the United States are patients of major depression disorder.
Itis important to note that the diagnosis of the major depressiondepends on an individual’s reported personal experiences, aperson’s behavior as reported by close friends, relatives,teachers, and or a mental examination. There is no laboratory testfor major depressive depression. Physicians however usually ask fortests of physical conditions that are likely to lead to a majordepressive depression.
Asignificant number of people often have a clinical depression onceduring their lifetime while others may have repeated episodes. Inmany cases, the onset of major depressive depression is usuallybetween the ages of 20-30 (NIH, n.d). There are families that havemajor depressive depressions passed across their generations whileothers may come from families that have never had such histories(Phillip, 2011). As far as the symptoms are concerned, an individualoften feels hopelessness, a very low mood in activities most of theday, fatigue, poor concentration and indecisiveness, lack of sleep oroversleeping most of the day, restlessness, intentions or thoughts ofcommitting suicide, great loss or gain of weight.
Atthis point, it is important to consider who is at the risk of majordepressive depression. According to studies conducted by theNational Institute of Mental Health, about 6.7% of the total UnitedStates population above the age of 18 years suffers from majordepression disorder every year. In other words, about 20% to 25% ofall the adults in the United States suffer from major depressivedisorder at least once in their lifetime. It is important to notethat major depressive disorder also occurs among children, teens andthe elderly. It however goes undiagnosed in these ages in many cases(NIH, n.d).
Morewomen are at a high risk of suffering from major depression disorderthan men especially due to the hormonal changes that take place inwomen during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause, miscarriageor even during puberty. Other causes that may increase the risks inwomen are taking care of an aged parent, raising a child alone,trying to balance between career and family.
Asnoted by WebMD (n.d), depression does happen in men though in manycases it goes neither undiagnosed nor treated. This is so becausemost of the men who undergo through major depression fail to reportto anyone about their condition. However, in men, there are varioussymptoms that may conclude a major depressive depression whichinclude among others, irritability, alcohol or drug abuse, anger,suicide or homicide.
Theother important question at this juncture is what causes depressionamong people. According to studies that have been conducted, it’sbeen proven that depression may be caused by biological, social andpsychological factors (Phillip, 2011). According to thediathesis-stress model, it proposes that depression results after apre-existing vulnerability is activated by stressful life events. Inthis case therefore, the pre-existing vulnerability could be geneticand in this case therefore meaning that an interaction between natureand nurture occurs and therefore resulting to the different views ofthe world that are learned during childhood (NIH, n.d).
Onthe other hand, as far as psychological issues are concerned, thevarious aspects of an individual’s personality and its developmentcould be interrelated to occurrence of major depressive depression.In this case therefore, negative emotions may trigger depressionamong individuals. People are different in the way they huddlestressful situations. There are those people who easily cope withsuch situations while others are less resilient (WebMD, n.d). Amongthose who are less resilient therefore, it is easy for them to getstressed easily. Early experiences in life are likely to impacteither negatively or positively in an individual. A good examplewould be a child who lost his or her caregiver, in this case could bea parent either through separation or death resulting to the thoughtthat the individual is unloved. This may play as a catalyst tointernal working models and therefore develop negative internal selfassessment among such individuals. In most cases, life experiencesoccurring after the actual incident may lead to such people havingthe thought that they are unloved. If they happen to in a positionthat they cannot make things to look better, they are likely todevelop self rejection which is often a precursor to major depressivedepression (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014).
Socially,poverty and isolation are usually associated with a risk of mentalhealth problem. Other factors such as child abuse, rape or neglectmay lead to major depressive depression later in an individual’slife. It is important to note that the abuse or neglect of a child bya caregiver is likely to impair the personality development of achild and therefore increase the risk of such a child to majordepressive depression (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Separation of theparents may also affect the development of a child’s personalityand thus result to depression later in life. Most of the people whoare reported to have major depressive depression usually develop anegative attitude about themselves. They always blame themselves forevents or situations that have gone wrong. Social support is anotherfactor that is debatable as far as major depression and other mentalhealth problems are concerned. Taking for example in situationswhereby a child is neglected by the parents may be due to poverty, itis important to note that it is not the child to blame for his or hersituation. However, in many cases, the society gives a blind eye tosuch a child and this may lead to the child becoming prone to majordepression. It is therefore important for the society to offersupport to children who may be neglected by their care givers bystarting institutions and constantly funding them such as orphanagesor schools where such children can be guided towards becomingrespectable citizens (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014).
Povertyeradication should be given a priority especially in the developingworld. The gap between the poor and the rich continues to expand andthis has made some people to very poor while others are very rich.The minorities are also often discriminated in the society and thiscan trigger cases of major depressive depression among the adults. Agood example would be a minority who is highly qualified but denied ajob on the bases of his or her color, this is likely to cause majordepression among such an individual. In this case therefore, thesociety in general needs to take the fore front in curbing all thevices in the society that contribute greatly to an increase in healthproblems among people.
MayoClinic Staff, (2014). Depression(major depressive disorder). RetrievedFrom,http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/basics/definition/con-20032977
PhillipW. Long, (2011). MajorDepressive Disorder.Retrieved From, http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md01.html
PsychCentral Staff. MajorDepressive Episode Symptoms.Retrieved From,http://psychcentral.com/disorders/major-depressive-episode-symptoms/
WebMD.DepressionHealth Center.Retrieved From,http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/major-depression