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Management essentials


Managementforms an important part of any given institution or activity. Thesuccess of a task or any entity, usually depends on the managementframework as well as approaches employed. Managers with the highlevels of skills and a history of success are always desired byinstitutions. The role of management in business as well asnon-business entities can, therefore, not go unnoticed.

Whatis management and what do managers do?

Thereare different perspectives of what management is and what activitiesand processes are categorized within it. Management can be defined asefforts aimed at organizing and coordinating the different entitiesin an organization, while utilizing the available resources in aneffective and efficient way. It is an organizational process thatincludes a number of activities such as setting of objectives,strategic planning, allocation of resources and measuring of theorganizational results. It is also important to note that managementbrings together people in order to make it possible for an entities’goals and objectives to be achieved. Typical characteristics ofmanagement include being a continuous process of related activities,involving and focusing on the goals of an organization and bringingtogether and coordinating the people and resources in anorganization.

Managersplay a number of important roles in an organization. Their key rolesinclude planning, organizing, influencing and controlling activitieswithin an organization. It should be noted that management activitiesare not only carried out by seniors in an organization, but everymember within an institution should have management skills. Underplanning, managers have to choose tasks and activities that lead theorganization in achieving its aims and objectives. They point out theprocedures that need to be followed for success to be attained. Underorganizing, managers have to assign different tasks to differentindividuals or groups in an organization. Managers have to organizethe tasks in such a way that each individual’s output contributesto the overall success of the organization. When playing the role ofinfluencing, managers have to motivate, direct those under them. Itinvolves guiding the activities of people within the organization.Controlling on the other hand is continuous and involves tasks suchasmeasuring of performance, comparing organizational activities aswell as determining action plans.

Explainorganizational culture and the external environment

Organizationalculture can be defined as the behaviors and values promoted by anorganization. These behaviors and values play an important role ininfluencing both the psychological and social environment of anorganization. It has an influence on how individuals that are part ofthe organization interact among themselves as well as others outsidethe organization. It includes the beliefs, norms, values, visions andhabits promoted by an organization. Organizational culture isobservable and consistent. An organization’s external environmenton the other hand includes factors that exist outside anorganization. It is made up of events, activities or situations thatare outside the company but still have an influence on it. Some ofthe elements that make up the external environment can be directlymanipulated while others cannot. Basic elements that make up theexternal environment include customers, competition, the governmentand the economy as a whole.

Explainthe start-up, planning, and organizing issues for an entrepreneurialventure

Anentrepreneurial venture is a developmental undertaking by anentrepreneur and which involves a number of activities such asdecision making and management of a project. State issued for anentrepreneurial venture ranges from financial to product developmentand marketing. Issues encountered at this level include inadequatefinancial resources, inadequate professional support as well as lackof support from the government. Other key issues include competition,demand, commitment as well as support. Organizing issues on theother hand include business management and the development of theventure. Planning of the entrepreneurial venture involves bringingtogether of the resources and tasks that would ensure the venture isa success.