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Most of the Heat in the Human Body is Generated within Mitochondria. Why

MOST OF THE HEAT IN THE HUMAN BODY IS GENERATED WITHIN MITOCHONDRIA. WHY SHOULD THIS BE? 4

Mostof the Heat in the Human Body is Generated within Mitochondria. Whyshould this be?

Mostof the Heat in the Human Body is Generated within Mitochondria. Whyshould this be?

Itshould be due to a number of reasons which are in line with aresearch which was done on the question and indeed proved this(Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).The reason given from the research is the impermeability of the innermembrane of the mitochondrion which leads to the creation of a protongradient known as the proton motive force (Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).Cells involved in oxidative processes use this proton gradient in thegeneration of electron donors through degrading fuel generated frommolecules. The donors are used in the transport system of theelectrons. The transport system of the electrons which is a chain issituated in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and consists offour complexes and a number of electrons transporters. Three of thefour complexes perform the role of proton pumps, move protons awayfrom the setting as well as inflate the proton motive forceelectrons, on the other hand, are moved through the chain.

Accordingto Stefan Krauss, Beth Israel, (2001), huge heat generation in thehuman body is as a result of the combination of the electrons movedalong the chain into the matrix and ATP which is created by ATPase.ATPase is another of the enzymes which uses proton gradient to createATP from ADP and Pi, enabling the return of electrons into thematrix. Furthermore, the impermeable nature of the mitochondrion to anumber of solutes enables it to have a large number of transporterswhich enhance the transfer of metabolites and ions between thecytosol and matrix (Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).The following section is a deeper analysis of how the impermeablenature of mitochondrion functions.

Substratetransfer system

Thelarge numbers of substrate transport shuttles play the role ofmoving, reducing equivalents to the inner mitochondrial membranesince not all of the nucleotides which are responsible for cellularredox reactions are able on their own (Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).Some of the nucleotides are NAD (P) +, NAD (P) H, FAD and CoA ().Reducing equivalents are produced through the complete oxidation ofglucose through glycolysis or cytosol to the pyruvate level. It isthe conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA and prior oxidation thatleads to automatic reducing equivalents that are used for oxidativephosphorylation through their action as substrates for the process(Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).

Thecarnite palmitoyltransferase system

Fattyacids are oxidized in the mitochondrion. As a result, a lot of heatshould be generated from the mitochondrion. This process isfacilitated by the carnite palmitoyltransferase system whichfacilitates the movement of the long acyl-CoA into the inner membraneof the mitochondrion since it is not able on its own (Krauss&amp Israel, 2001).Overt carnite palmitoyltransferase is responsible for transportingacyl portion to carnitine. It is through a carnitine protein carrierthat acyl carnitine is transferred to the membranes matrix area to beexchanged for carnitine. It is then through CPT II that the acylgroup is moved to CoA which belongs to the mitochondrial pool.

References

Krauss,S., &amp Israel, B. (2001). Mitochondria: Structure and Role inRespiration. Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical school,USA.