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Obesity Obesity




Anapple a day keeps the doctor away. Obesity is health relatedcondition that results from excess accumulation of fats in the body.The condition occurs when a person acquires larger quantity of energythan the body needs for its regular maintenance. The body convertsthe extra energy into fats and stores it in various parts of the bodyfor utilization when the body has limited calorie supply. Healthprofessionals determine obesity through a formula called body massindex (BMI). The BMI is a ratio acquired from dividing the averageweight of an individual with his or her weight. Individuals with aBMI ranging between 25 and 230 are overweight. In addition, they atrisk of becoming obese unless they improve their dieting andlifestyle practices. On the other hand, people with a BMI rangingbetween 30 and 40 are considered obese because they have excess bodyfats that could make accomplishing daily chores (Hu, 2008). Lastly,patients with a BMI that exceeds 40 are morbidly overweight hence,they cannot even move. The objective of this research is outliningthe causes, effects, and treatment of obesity.

Ideveloped interest for conducting research based on obesity becauseabove 35.7% (78 million) adults and 16.9% (12.5 million) children inthe United States are suffering from obesity. Laker (2013) claimsthat the obesity prevalence is increasing steadily in the UnitedStates thus, it is an important public health topic. Americans needto be educated on efficient methods for coping with the condition.

Theobjective of this project is developing efficient solutions for bothpreventing obesity to persons predisposed to the condition. On theother hand, the research will also also define efficient defineefficient methods that obese patients can either overcome the stateor maintain it at safe health level. The study will encompass variousmethods of suppressing diseases that patients are predisposed to,such as adopting an active lifestyle, as well refraining fromconsuming junk diets that could escalate the overweight problem(Beller, 1998).

Thisproject will focus on a quantitative approach because it involvescollecting numerical data, and then analyzing it using mathematicalformulae. Quantitative research technique will facilitate evaluationof a vast amount of data concerning effects of obesity, managementmethods, and treatment options among other values. In addition,compiling the gathered data into a presentation form such as a graphor pie chart is simple because figures for the information used inthe research are readily available. Quantitative research facilitatescompilation of a large amount of data, as the researcher does notknow what to expect. Several medical studies use this researchapproach because it deduces the implication of data after analyzingthe information using various mathematical calculations (Blass,2008).

Accordingto Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1996), the UnitedStates can reduce the number of obesity children through encouraginghealthy dieting in schools. The school canteens should also sellhealthy foods since the junk foods that supply students with largeamounts of calories and fats are major causes of the condition. Onthe other hand, CDC (2013) recommends that parents and the communityat large should be educated on dieting habits to reduce the number ofpatients consuming unhealthy foods. Christensen (2004) exploresvarious techniques that Americans can use to prevent family membersfrom becoming obese. For instance, the author recommends thatpatients should exercise regularly. Besides, changing dieting habitsand searching for medical assistance on time are other strategies theauthor recommends for controlling obesity in America. Clark et al.(1998) explores the significance of Health and Physical Educationteachers in the United States. The author claims that advancedtechnology and easy access to automobiles prevent people fromengaging in any form of physical activity. The researcher claims thatevery school and local gymnasium should have an experienced HPEexpert to guide both obese and vulnerable persons on effectivephysical practices to maintain a desired weight. Delaney (2013)focuses on strategies that the Americans can control diseasesassociated with obesity such as hypertension and colon cancers.

Effectsof obesity

TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) formally declared obesity a worldwideendemic in 1997. Prior to the 20th century, obesity was scarce as itwas mainly associated with the extremely wealthy persons. Accordingto Hu (2008), there were more than 500 million obese personsworldwide by 2008. The author further claims that the majority of theobese persons were women. Christensen (2004) claims that the risk ofobesity keep increasing as an individual grows older. The regionsthat are most affected by obesity include the United States,Australia, and Canada. However, other developed, middle-income, anddeveloping countries are still significantly affected by obesity.However, sub-Saharan Africa is the least affected by obesity. TheGreeks were the first people to identify obesity as a medicalcondition (Freedman, 2009). For many centuries, humans have struggledwith food scarcity, thus some communities presumed that the obesitywas a sign of wealth. However, medical professionals such asHippocrates claimed that the obesity was not itself a disease, but aforerunner of others. In sixth Century BCE, Sushruta, an Indiansurgeon, associated the condition as a predisposing factor to heartand diabetes disorders (Beller, 1998). Throughout history, numerouscultures consider obesity to emanate from the behavior defect. Forexample, the fat character or “obesus” was a Greek comedycharacter that was mocked for being a glutton.

Causesof obesity

Althoughthere are numerous factors that may cause obesity, individual levelcauses such as consuming excessive food and condoning sedentarylifestyle is a major cause of excessive weight gain. However, a fewcases can be attributed to psychiatric illnesses, genetics, ormedical reasons. At society level, the condition is blamed on easilypalatable and accessible foods, mechanization of various functionsand heavy reliance on cars (Freedman, 2009).

Blass(2008) also identified a list of other factors that are associatedwith obesity. Among these extra conditions, include inadequatesleeping. The author recommends that people should sleep for 6-8hours on consistently, and at a constant time. Intermittent sleepingis detrimental to human health because it might interfere withcritical metabolic functions (Blass, 2008). Second, environmentalpollutants or endocrine disruptors might interrupt lipid digestioncould also lead to increased weight. Third, significant variation inambient temperature may also cause weight increase as the body as thesystem prepares to prepare the skin to withstanding severe cold.Fourth, ex-smokers or individuals who smoke at a lower frequency aremore vulnerable to weight increase (Beller, 1998). Tobacco suppressesappetite hence, decreased smoking enables an individual to consumelarger amounts of food, which accounts for the weight gain (Blass,2008). Fifth, some prescription and over-the-counter drugs may alsolead to weight gain. For instance, muscle building steroids andhypertension drugs have been associated with causing drastic weightgain (Beller, 1998). Sixth, first pregnancy at advanced age does makewomen obese. In addition, children born by mothers who are aboveforty years are vulnerable to becoming obese. Seventh, some ethnicgroups such as the African Americans and Spaniards are vulnerable toobesity. Lastly, obesity may be passed from generation to the othervia genetics. For instance, assortative meeting leads to transmissionof epigenetic hazard factors across generations naturally (Freedman,2009).

Curefor obesity

Obesitytreatment is based on four primary goals. These objectives includethe application of measures to prevent reacquisition of lost weight,preventing further weight acquisition, losing weight graduallythrough constant exercise and consuming healthy, as well as calorie–controlled foods. In addition, persons predisposed to obesityshould improve their lifestyle to lessen the vulnerability tosuffering from complications associated with obesity (Blass, 2008).

Someindividuals often work closely with dieticians, weight trainers, orweight loss groups to achieve their desired weight. However, othersdo prefer to take drugs that are manufactured primarily for helpingpatients to reduce weight . There are both prescription weight losspills and over-the-counter programs that can be convenientlypurchased from numerous online outlets (Wadden &amp Stunkard, 2002). However, many weight loss pills offer a short-term solution sinceeither they enhance fat metabolism or they suppress an individual’sappetite. Once the patient stops using the medications, they quicklyregain the weight since they had not adjusted their lifestyle toprevent excess weight gain. Lifestyle adjustment, as well as,increased physical exercising is the best strategies for addressingweight gain problem (Blass, 2008).

Lastly,weight surgery should be the last option for addressing thecondition. This strategy is mainly used with morbidly obese patients.Surgeons operate a patient and remove stubborn fats deposited in thebody using the latest medical technology (Freedman, 2009).


Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (1996). Guidelines forschool health programs to promote lifelong healthy eating. Morbidityand Mortality Weekly Report,45(RR-9), 1-33.

Centerfor Disease Control CDC (2013) RecommendedCommunity Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in theUnited States. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr

Christensen,P. (2004). The Health-promoting family: A conceptual framework forfuture research SocialScience and Medicine,59, 377-387.

Clark,D., Blair, S., Culan, M. (1988). Are HPE teachers’ good rolemodels? Journalof Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 54,76–80.

Delaney,J. (2013). Hypertension and obesity: How weight-loss affectshypertension.Retrieved fromhttp://www.obesityaction.org/educational-resources/resource-articles-2/obesity-related-diseases/hypertension-and-obesity-how-weight-loss-affects-hypertension

Hu,F. (2008). ObesityEpidemiology.Oxford University Press.

Beller,A. S. (1998). Fat&amp thin: A natural history of obesity.New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Wadden,T. A., &amp Stunkard, A. J. (2002). Handbookof obesity treatment.New York: Guilford

Freedman,J. (2009). Understandingobesity: The mental and physical effects of obesity.New York: Rosen Pub.