What is fatalism? How is it illustrated in the story of OedipusRex? How is it both similar to and different from determinism?
Fatalism is a doctrine in philosophy studies that asserts that humanbeings are powerless in determining or deciding their actions andthat all events or actions are based on fate. In other words,fatalism can be viewed as a belief that postulates that a person’sfuture events are inevitable and if they are meant to occur, theperson in question has no control over them. In the story of Oedipus,fatalism is evident. Oedipus followed the revelation that he wouldkill his own father, Laius and marry his own mother, Jocasta. Whenthis came to happen, it was clear that Oedipus had no knowledge ofwhat he was doing he did not know his parents and neither did theyknow him. In other words, he had no control over his actions. It isnoteworthy to assert that if Oedipus had known his biological fatherand mother, he would not have done what he did. This indicates a caseof fatalism where events that happened seemed inevitable and out ofcontrol for Oedipus. In the mind of Oedipus, he killed Laius in aneffort to save the people of Thebe.
Fatalism is different from determinism in that determinists believethat every event or human action is as a result of another action orevent. Determinism asserts that humans have no free will or choice ofdeciding and determining what will happen to them. However, analystshave argued that fatalism is a form of determinism where an eventmight happen because a certain action was not taken. In other words,the two philosophical concepts seem to rely on casualty. Bothconcepts assert that events in our lives are inevitable.
What is determinism? To what principle do determinists usuallyappeal in order to ground the truth of their position? And why doesdeterminism tend to make people uncomfortable?
Determinism has been regarded as a philosophical concept thatasserts that events and human actions are inevitable and that theyare the outcomes of other external causes. Determinists argue thatevery event or human action that occurs has underlying reasons andcauses that could not have yielded a different result. The principleof determinism assert that all events in human life are predeterminedand that they are a result or consequence of previous life events.One areas of controversy that surround this principle is the argumentthat people should not be held responsible for their actions sincethey do not have a free will or a choice of the events and actionsthat happen in their lives.
Determinism has been under attack from people in different sectorsover its assertion that people cannot be held accountable andresponsible for their actions. In cases regarding the application oflaw, it is evident that this principle has made law enforcersuncomfortable. When people have the knowledge of right and wrong, itis evident that they should be able to choose what to do. A vastmajority of psychologists and philosophers has disputed thisprinciple and have argued that humans have the free will to choosewhat best befits them.
What are Kant’s views on determinism and free will? How doeseach concept play a role in his thought? And how are they connectedto morality?
Kant strongly opposed determinism arguing that itis an assumption cannot be tested through experience or proved. Kantargued that the principle of determinism cannot be believed andcannot be true. Whereas determinism asserts that humans are subjectto physical laws that determine events and actions in their lives andthat they are inevitable, Kant disputes this by arguing that humanshave conscious and cannot be subject to physical laws like objects.Kant disputes determinism since it does account for morality.Determinism does not hold people accountable for their moral orimmoral actions. As a consequence, Kant points out that humans havethe freedom of observing the physical law and acting based on reasonsand not based on causes and effects. The question of morals made Kantsupport the principle of free will. Kant believed that freedom ofchoice is the foundation of morality.
The two concepts play a key role in his thought where he ends updeciding that free will is critical in the possibility of moralitywhereas determinism inhibits morality. The two principles had animpact on his works such as Critique of Pure Reason,where he criticized determinism and argued that free will wasessential for attainment of morality. Both concepts are directlyconnected to morality. The aspect of free will seems to contributeimmensely to the aspect of morality whereas determinism inhibitsmorality.
Do human beings have free will? Or is determinism true? (Orboth?) Whatever position you hold, explain why you think yourposition is true. Then explain the moral consequences of yourposition.
It is imperative to start by pointing out that humans are consciousbeings who have a capacity to determine what is wrong and what isright. Any event or action that occur in the life of a person is theresult of a choice. It is therefore apparent that human beings havefree will. Human beings decide what they want to happen in theirlives. Whereas there might be various physical laws operating as itis stipulated by determinism, it is paramount to note that such lawscannot apply to humans like they do to objects without conscience.For instance, when individuals commit a crime, it cannot be construedthat the particular criminal had no control over his actions. It isclear that such an individual had the choice to commit or not tocommit the crime.
According to extensive research on determinism, it is evident thatit is not true. Events in people’s lives as a result of their ownchoices. It is, however, critical to note that the freedom thatpeople enjoy and free will is sometimes limited and does not apply inall aspects. Free will has the consequence of ensuring moralityprevails over irresponsibility and immorality. With free willindividuals have the choice to choose what is right and do it. It is,therefore, clear that free will, as opposed to determinism, has apositive influence on morality.