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Prevalent diseases in the USA

Prevalentdiseases in the USA

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Prevalentdiseases in the USA

Thisis a research paper which seeks to provide information on fourdiseases which are known to be prevalent in the United States. Inthis case, I will generally provide information on the overview ofthe four diseases as well as the background information about eachone of them. These four diseases are

  • Down syndrome

  • Klinefenter Syndrome

  • Turner syndrome

  • Triplex syndrome

Iwill, therefore, basically describe why the four diseases have from2004 through 2012 increase in the USA.

Downsyndrome

Downsyndrome (DS) or Down`s syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is aninherited problem due to the existence of all or part of a thirdduplicate of chromosome 21. It is generally associated with physicalgrowth setbacks, attribute face features and light to averageperceptual impairment. [2] The common IQ of a teen with Down syndromeis 50, compared to the psychological age of an 8 or 9 year old child,but this differs commonly.

Downsyndrome can be recognized during maternity by prenatal examiningfollowed by analytic examining, or after beginning by directstatement and DNA examining. Since the release of examining, childbeginning with the analysis are often ended (Brill, 2006). Regularexamining for health issues common in Down syndrome is suggestedthroughout the life of a person.

Thereare various reasons as to why this problem has been increasing in theUSA over the years. One among many reasons is the main one which is,it has many common causes. Trisomy 21 (47 chromosomes/cell) due tonon-disjunction of chromosome 21, which outcomes in three duplicatesof chromosome 21 rather than the regular two duplicates(approximately 95% of all cases) (Cohen, Nadel &amp Madnick, 2003).

KlinefenterSyndrome

Klinefeltersyndrome also referred to as or Klinefelter`s syndrome is the set ofsigns as a result of extra X inherited content in men. Also known as47, XXY or XXY, Klinefelter problem is an inherited problem in whichthere is at least one extra X chromosome to a conventional individualmen karyotype, for a complete of 47 chromosomes rather than the 46discovered in genetically common individuals (Bandman &amp Breit,1984) While women have an XX genetic cosmetics and men an XY,individuals with Klinefelter problem have at least two X chromosomesand at least one Y chromosome. Because of the extra chromosome,individuals with the situation are usually generally known as &quotXXYmales&quot, or &quot47, XXY males&quot. This chromosome structure(karyotype) prevails in approximately between 1:500 to 1:1000 staymen births, but many of these individuals may not display signs. Ifthe actual characteristics associated with the problem becomeobvious, they normally appear after the start of puberty (Froland,1969). In people, 47, XXY is the most typical sex chromosomeaneuploidy in males and the second most typical situation due to theexistence of extra chromosomes, only to Down syndrome. Other animalsalso have the XXY problem, such as rats. Principal results consist ofhypogonadism and sterility. A wide range of other actual andbehavioural variations and problems are typical, though intensitydiffers and many XXY guys have few noticeable symptoms.

Thereasons as to why this problem has been increasing from 2004 through2012 are the complications that come along with it. They are:

Menwith KS may have an improved chance of certain conditions including:

  • Cardiovascular disease – this is due to improved blood veins cholesterol stages which may happen and the threat can be reduced with androgenic hormone or testosterone treatment.

  • `Thin bones` (osteoporosis) – low stages of androgenic hormone or testosterone increase the chance of creating weak bone fragments. If you have KS you should have regular bone strength and solidity testing assessments.

  • Breast melanoma – the chance of creating breasts cancers is about 20 times higher than in otherwise healthy men. If you have KS, you should regularly analyse your breast area and see your doctor if you notice any mounds or have any issues.

  • Thromboembolism – men with KS have an improved chance of deep lines of thinking thrombosis and blood veins clotting in veins (pulmonary embolism).

  • Autoimmune illnesses – these include widespread lupus erythematosus, joint disease and Sjögren`s problem.

  • Diabetes – this is also more common if you have KS.

Turnersyndrome

Turnerproblem or Ullrich–Turner problem 45, X, involves severalcircumstances in individual women, of which monosomy X (absence of awhole sex chromosome, the Barr body) is most typical. It is a geneticproblem in which all or part of one of the sex chromosomes is losingor has other irregularities (unaffected people have 46 chromosomes,of which two are sex chromosomes). In some situations, the chromosomeis losing in some tissues but not others, a situation generally knownas mosaicism or &quotTurner mosaicism” (Bondy,2007).

Occurringin 1 in 2000 [3] – 1 in 5000 phenotypic women, the problem exhibitsitself in various ways. There are attribute actual irregularitieswhich impact many, but not all people with Turner problem, such asshort prominence, inflammation, wide chest area, low hairline,low-set listening to, and webbed neck. Ladies with Turner problemgenerally encounter gonadal malfunction (non-working ovaries), whichoutcomes in amenorrhea (absence of menstruation cycle) and sterility.Contingency health issues may also exist, such as geneticcardiovascular illness, hypothyroid issues (reduced hormonal releaseby the thyroid), diabetic issues, perspective issues, listening toissues, and many auto-immune illnesses. Lastly, a particular designof intellectual failures is often noticed, with particularcomplications in visuospatial, statistical, and storage areas.

Someof the reasons as to why this disease has been on the increase overthe years are its major complications. Turner problem can affect theproper development of several body systems. A number of problems mayoccur, including:

  • Centre related illnesses. Many females and some women with Turner problem were born with heart problems or even minor irregularities in heart structure that improve their chance of serious problems (Moreno-Garcia, 2005). Defects in the main vein leading out of the centre (aorta) improve the chance of a tear in the inner layer of the aorta (aortic dissection). A defect in the device between the centre and the aorta may also improve the chance of a narrowing of the device (aortic device stenosis).

  • Risks of cardiac arrest. Women with Turner problem have an improved chance of diabetic issues and hypertension — conditions that improve the chance of creating diseases of the centre and veins.

  • Kidney issues. About one-third of the ladies with Turner problem have some malformation of the kidneys (Hanton, 2003). Although these malformations generally don`t cause health conditions, they may improve the chance of hypertension and bladder attacks.

  • Dental issues. Poor or irregular tooth development may lead to a higher chance of referred to as. The form of the roof of the mouth and lower jaw often outcomes in crowded teeth and a poorly aligned bite.

  • Vision issues. Girls with Turner problem have an improved chance of poor muscle control of eye movements (strabismus) and farsightedness (hyperopia).

  • Skeletal issues. Issues with the development of bone fragments improve the chance of irregular curvature of the spine (scoliosis) and forward rounding of the upper back (kyphosis). Women with Turner problem are also at improved chance of creating poor, poor bone fragments (osteoporosis).

  • Pregnancy problems. Some females with Turner problem can become pregnant with fertility treatment. However, most females with the problem have relatively high-risk pregnancies. There`s an improved chance of the mother creating hypertension, gestational diabetes issues and aortic dissection (Rosenfield, 2005).

  • Psychological issues. Girls and ladies with Turner problem may have an improved chance of low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, difficulties functioning well in social situations and attention-deficit/hyperactivity problem.

Triplex syndrome

MultipleX problems (also known as triple-X, trisomy X, XXX problem, 47, XXXaneuploidy) is a way of genetic distinction recognized by theexistence of an extra X chromosome in each mobile of personalfemales. The situation happens only in females. Females with thetriple X problem have three X chromosomes instead of two. Thekaryotype flows 47, XXX. A variant type also happens where only anamount of the tissues contain XXX while the relax bring XX (NORD,2003). The level to which a person is suffering from the situationwill rely upon the amount of XXX to XX throughout.[1] Multiple Xresults during department of a mom`s or dad`s reproduction tissuesand happens about once in every 1,000 female births. Compared withmost other genetic circumstances (such as Down syndrome), there isusually no recognizable distinction to the nude eye between femaleswith triple X and the relax of the female inhabitants.

Withthe triple x syndrome, the reasons as to why it has been increasingover the years are:

  • One in every 1000 women has an extra X chromosome.

  • The actual phenotype reveals previously development and longer feet.

  • The behaviour phenotype often reveals hearing handling problems, problems in terminology development and problems in developing constant social connections.

  • Psychiatric problems seem to be more common in multiple X problems.

  • Quality of life seems to increase after making school.

  • Further research is necessary. This is true in actual and behavioural aspects

Althoughthere seems to be a common agreement on offering inherited details ina nondirective way,87 mother and father have obtained inconsistentdetails after a prenatal SCA analysis.88, 89 After a prenatalmultiple X analysis, a lower maternity cancellations rate is revealedthan in Klinefelter problem.90, 91 Serious irregularities inultrasound examination exams before or after prenatal analysisincrease cancellations prices.92 There are significant socialvariations in prenatal guidance.93, 94 For example, in Israel, highprices of cancellations are revealed,95 but low prices are revealedin Malaysia.96, 97 The reviews on growth in impartial categories withSCA seem to be accountable for a pattern of a decrease incancellations prices.98, 99, 100, 101

Themultiple X problems is a problem with an advanced level of variety inthe actual and behavioural phenotype (Hagerman,2002).The multiple X problems is not unusual, but it is often undiscovered.Despite the relatively great occurrence of the triple X problem,there are many issues yet to be analysed in actual and behaviouralgrowth up to old age.

References

Bandman.H., Breit, R. (1984). Klinefelter`ssyndrome.New York: Springer.

BondyCA, for the Turner Syndrome Consensus Study Group. Care of girls andwomen with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome StudyGroup. JClin Endocrinol Metab.200792:10–25.

Brill,M. (2006). DownSyndrome.Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.

Cohen,W., Nadel. L., Madnick. M. (2003) DownSyndrome: Visions for the 21stcentury. Unitedstates: John Wiley &amp Sons.

Froland,A. (1969). Klinefelter`ssyndrome: clinical, endocrinological and cytogenetical studies.Costers Bogtrykkeri.

HantonL, Axelrod L, Bakalov V, Bondy CA. The importance of oestrogenreplacement in young women with Turner syndrome. JWomens Health.200312:971–7.

Hagerman,R., Hagerman, P. (2002). FragileX Syndrome: Diagnosis, Treatment and research. UnitedStates: JHU Press.

Moreno-GarciaM, Fernandez-Martinez FJ, Barreiro Miranda E. Chromosomal anomaliesin patients with short stature. PediatrInt.200547:546–9.

NationalOrganization for rare Disorders. (2003). NORDGuide to Rare Disorders.UnitedStates:LippincottWilliams &amp Wilkins.

RosenfieldRL, Devine N, Hunold JJ, Mauras N, Moshang T Jr, Root AW. Thesalutary effects of combining early very low-dose systemic estradiolwith growth hormone therapy in girls with Turner syndrome. JClin Endocrinol Metab.200590:6424–30.