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Psychological factors leading to motivation


Psychologicalfactors leading to motivation

Thereare different Psychological factors that bring about employeeproductivity and satisfaction, these factors influences employeesattitude, functions and the way he or she thinks thus, affecting hisor her ability to perform better (Bernstein, 2006). Thesepsychological factors include anxiety, feelings, attitudes and lackof motivation among others. In other words there are affective traitsof an employee that impacts on his or her behavior. These study paperaims at discussing the role played by psychological factors inemployee productivity and satisfaction and their application in thework place.

Backgroundinformation Employee satisfaction and productivity

Employeejob satisfaction is significant because improves employees quality oflife and boost work performance (Cranny, 1992). Surveys carried outin the past indicate that the percentage of employees losing jobsatisfaction is on the rise. A survey done in 1987 indicated thatonly 39.1% of employees were not satisfied in their job and by theyears, the percentage has increased to 55%. Job dissatisfaction isrampant in people of age under 25 years and is less in the agebracket of 45-54 years.

Overthe years the employers have failed to provide employees with jobsatisfaction a trend expected to continue into the future. There areseveral events and factors that contribute to employees’dissatisfaction. The rise of a generation of workers who enter thejob market with an attitude that they are entitled to jobsatisfaction, In addition to this employees who feels that theirdreams were never attained through work are also leaving the jobmarket to venture into other areas. This lack of job satisfaction isattributed to job security, work interest and employee engagementwhich comprises of job design, extrinsic rewards, managerial quality,and organizational health.

Therole of the management is to find out which factors greatly affectthe employee’s satisfaction. After this the managers can investtime, energy and money in effort to improve the situation. Thefollowing factors require more attention when solving the issue ofemployee satisfaction: job security, compensation, feeling secure atthe work place, opportunities for growth and benefits that comes withwork such as retirement benefit (Burke, et al. 2011). Other factorsinclude employee relationship to his immediate supervisor,communication channel between employee and his superiors, jobindependence and autonomy and the job itself.

Employeeproductivity can be maximized through reducing employee’s stressthis can be done by giving the employees control over their work.Communicating clearly to the employee about everything can alsoreduce employee’s stress and increase productivity. In addition,employee productivity can be increased by talking to them on areas toimprove on and how employees can work comfortably and increasecustomer satisfaction. Implementing positive psychology in the workplace is of great value as it increases productivity in the workplace. This can be done by ensuring that the employee’s feelsvalued, happy and satisfied with their work. An employer shouldtherefore show employees respect, build a trust based relationship,nurture employee creativity and build effective teams if they aregoing to have increase in productivity among the employees.


Studiescarried out in the past have indicated that employee’s satisfactionand productivity is affected by various psychological factors.Example of such studies is one carried out by Timothy Judge and JoyceBono of the University of Iowa who found out that productivity andsatisfaction are linked by four characters which are: locus ofcontrol, emotional steadiness, self-esteem and generalizedself-efficacy (Timothy, et al. 2002). High self esteem was perceivedas a factor leading to productivity as employees having high esteemperceive challenging tasks as justified opportunity which they canutilize and benefit from. Contrary, those with a low self esteemperceive a challenging task as an opportunity to fail thus,threatening future success of the company. Internal locus of controlplays a great role in job satisfaction as employees are less likelyto hang about in unsuccessful businesses. Neuroticism was related tolowering of self esteem of individuals as it creates a negativeeffect on job satisfaction.

Anotherresearch carried out by Nathan of University of Florida and Philipand Scott of Indiana University, they observed that socialdesirability and leniency also play a big part in employees’motivation as they state that they give a mental health approvalwhich leads to motivation and better output is obtained thuspromoting the sense of belonging improving workers productivity(Bruce &amp Pepitone, 1999). They further stated that these factorshelp employees perceive workplace as better places. By this, workersare able to socialize wit9h their immediate supervisors which laterassist in formation of good relation with the customers. A sense ofself will is created in the workers who later go the extra mile ofmaking sure the company is in the first line of success andcompetition.

Theresearches later indicated that involvement of employees in projectsand undertakings helps in elevating their sense of belonging and afeeling of appreciation. Workers, who get appreciation their jobplace, tend to sacrifice their personal belonging like money tosupport their work place. Employees’ sacrifices are taken dearly bythe management who in turn consider incentives to the workers andprofit sharing among the employees in times when the organizationsdividends are being given out (Lall, &amp Zaidi, 2010).


Satisfactionand good will are vital aspects in job performance. At a situationwhere employee is satisfied and is contented with his or her workplace, better performance is guaranteed. Psychological state of theworkers is a very crucial element to be considered for betterperformance and increase in productivity (Folsom, 2004). Favorablepsychological aspects elevate morale of the workers. Some of thepsychological considerations to be looked into for better performanceinclude


Majorpurpose of a business is making a profit by achieving the set goaland the target. For a goal to be realized, team work matters a lotstarting with the managers to the common workers. A good relationbetween the workers enhances a good team. In a scenario where theworkers feel that they are dragging the business behind, they becometraumatized. Regular complains from the management also lowersworkers’ morale as they start viewing themselves as incompetent tobe in the team (Kuballa, 2007). Rather than complaining, themanagement should use a friendly language to avoid hurting workers’feelings. In a case where the feelings are hurt, a negative attitudecrops up which inhibit a relation formation. It is advised thatmanagement of a business should appreciate employees’ efforts andachievements and engage workers in decision making. When appreciatingefforts done, the management is advised to let workers feel that theywere part of the success (Garber, 2004). The trend of engagingworkers will slowly make them feel that they are part of the businessand they have played a crucial role in lifting the business’performance. Workers’ engagement improves their morale, andencourages them to work harder.


Whena worker finishes an assigned project, him or her hands in papers ofcompletion, the management supervises the work and either demands arepeat of the work or accepts the work. After an analysis of theoutcome, the management is advised to give a feed back to the workeror rank the worker according to performance (Aamodt,2012).In some organizations, the supervisors may fail to give a feed backto their workers. This situation leads to unknown fears by theworkers as they do not understand whether their job was well done orwas not to perfection. Such a situation causes mental stress to theworkers thus, affecting their efficiency and workforce (Bowles, et al2007). Therefore, it is advised that supervisors be giving feedbackto the employees so as to raise their morale. In the case where thefeedback is not positive, it is advised that the managers convey thefeedback in a professional manner. They should order for a repeat ofthe work but at the same time they should explain to the worker whythey think the job is not to the expectations. Also, they should takethe initiative of explaining what was supposed to be done as doing sowill make the worker feel better mentally and finally do a perfectjob.


Performanceof a business adversely depends on the management given to theprojects. At every stage of performance, it is advised that asupervisor should be around and approve the work and issue a go—aheadto the next phase. Operations which supervisors’ monitors and givea go-ahead run smoothly and the work is done to perfection (Netessine2009). Over the years, it has been observed that workers feel morecomfortable getting instructions and controls from the managers thanin situations where they are left to manage themselves. Supervisioneases the work over- load and workers do a job knowing there will beno repetition of the job. Where supervisors are not around, workersare left to manage themselves and do the work thus causing workover-load and increasing fear of having a repetition of work. Thementality of a repetition affects employees mentally thus reducingtheir efficiency. It is advisable to have managers supervising everystage of performance (Aamodt, 2012).

Precisionof work and talks

Consistentsenseless job addition by the supervisors over time affects theworkers mentality and they view the supervisors as inhuman.Continuation of such jobs will affect the minds of the workers asthey perceive the work as not planned and wastage of their time(Ricketts, 2011). It is advised that employers and supervisorsallocate specific jobs and avoid additional jobs after completion ofthe previous ones to avoid mental stress to workers.


Supportby the workplace is very crucial in motivating workers. A good imageis formed in the minds of workers if they notice that their workplaces supports and cares for them. Some of the things which can bedone to show the workers they are cared for are, incentive to theworkers doing a good job and congratulatory messages from themanagers (Podmoroff, 2005). Better treatment from the administratoralso plays a very vital role in raising morale just to name a few.Better treatment increase motivation and sustainability in the job.


Communicationis considered as the bridge between the superiors and the normalemployees. Therefore, the management should be holding meetings withthe staff members with the aim of knowing their problems at workplace. Issues raised should be addressed immediately or promised tobe looked into. The communication creates a good relation and peaceof the mind thus, making the workers more contented with theirworkplace and their work as well.

Privacydue to office layout

Ina one-hall office, there is little privacy and some members are notcomfortable to be exposed to the public. Partitioning of the officecould improve such a situation as it will increase privacy thus theminds of workers will be at peace. In return, the employees willappreciate their workplace and works whole heartedly giving the bestthey can offer.


Workinghours should be working hours and no any other business should becarried out. After the days’ job is completed, all communicationshould be minimized to give time to the employee’s time toparticipate in their personal life. By doing so, the personal life ofemployees is catered for and time is given to it. Thus,sustainability of the workers is guaranteed because they are notmentally harassed in any given manner.

Otherrelated studies concerning workers sustainability

Instudy conducted in the past results shows several psychologicalfactors affect the workplace comfort ability and sustenance.


Argumentbrought forth stated that in any work place where mental state of theworkers is a key concern to the management, workers often performtheir duties whole heartedly. Also they participate fully and reducedcases of withdrawal. In such an organization, cases of absence,misunderstandings, increase in accidents and loss occurrence areminimal.

Argumentsthat in an organization, having positive cultures makes employeesfeels comfortable at work contrary to an organization having negativecultures. Positive cultures keep the target of what the organizationis supposed to achieve in a given trading period. A positive cultureelevates the employees self esteem and mental state.

Additionally,the findings show that in organizations where there is a definedleadership, the employees feels comfortable as they do only what isrequired of them. Route maps of what is supposed to be done reducemental pressure on workers thus, improving their productivity.

Respectand courtesy

Respectamong employees and the management improves morale thus leading to agood relationship between workers and the customers. Courtesy alsoplays a vital role in promoting the relations as it is the bridge toattaining respect. If the two are not found in an organization,there shall be cases of depression and absenteeism to work thereforecausing low workers’ morale.

Betterperformance relies on the factor Psychological job fit Inorganizations where the staff members feel that their knowledge andexperience are incorporated, they tend to be more active and therewill be no scenarios of overworking. As a result, the self-motivation is improved reduces the mental stress among workers.

Expansionand advance

Poorperformance among workers is also triggered by daily routine andboredom of the work. Advice is given to management to at times exposethe employees to some managerial skills with the aim of increasingtheir knowledge. With this, workers feel that they can manage thebusiness to some magnitude, hence raising their morale and placingthem in a better position of managing a business in the future. Theact promotes their mental wellbeing and boredom with the same job isreduced.

Appreciationand incentive

Researchersadvise that good work of workers should be recognized and rewardedwith the aim of improving morality and likeness of the job. Such actsmotivates workers, raise self esteem and competence as well asencourage team work.

Participationand control

Forbetter performance, team players should be involved in meetingsconcerned with the company’s welfare. The act makes the employeesfeel part and parcel of the company thus raising the employees’morale who in turn put all their efforts in production. Extra energyand the self-will of the workers is later portrayed in the output.

Understandingstrength and weaknesses

Forthe sustainability of any business in the competitive world of trade,every organization must be able to understand its’ potentials.Hence the business must analyze its’ strength, weaknesses,opportunities and the threats of the company during its existence andproduction. Previous studies related to the strengths and weaknessesshow that the strengths of motivating employees’ mental state arediverse. Included in the strengths, are the many job opportunitiesthat emerge due to attainment of higher level of education(International symposium, 2006). Employees with a masters’ degreehave higher chances of prospering and excelling as they are needed inthe market. Another strength of worker motivation is thespecialization in different career paths. By being motivatedpsychologically, workers appreciate their work place and in turn,they take diverse paths of job including private sectors, governmentand many others. According to related studies about psychologicalmotivation of workers, theories were brought forth. These theorieshave some weaknesses and strengths. Some motivational theories werediscussed including the Alders theory and Maslow need theory to namea few.

Accordingto Alder, there are three basic needs of human being: existence,relatedness and growth need. He argued that these three needs must bemet by an employee so as to have increased performance. According tothe study done by Maslow (1943), he said that human needs aresupposed to be categorized into five groups: physiological, security,belongings,, esteem and finally self-actualization needs(Heckhausen, 2000).According to Maslow, one is motivated so as to gain physiologicalsatisfaction, then one move to the next step of satisfying securityneeds. The process goes on until one attains the self-actualization.Strength of this research is that it shows us a critical analysis ofneeds and the procedure to be followed in fulfilling them.

Accordingto the study done by Vroom (1964), workers are motivated by theirintensity of need to a specific thing and accordance to the plan theyhave of attaining the objective (Fischer, 2010).He further observed that, motivation is a path to greater efforts.The efforts merged with employees’ ability and environmentalfactors contribute to diversified outcome which are positive to thecompany. The purpose of employee motivation is to gain social equityin the incentives they get as a result of high performance (Adams,1965). Adam argued that the outcomes from any job included pay,recognition, promotion, social relationship and intrinsic rewards. Hefurther suggested that workers viewed their outcomes and inputs interms of ratios and they evaluated the ratios with others and weremotivated if the ratios were high. Weakness of the theory is that itfails to give us the repercussions of failure to equalization ofratios.

Psychologicalfactors contributing to workers satisfaction and productivity can beapplied in the work places in a much strategized manner. Some of theways they can be applied includes recognition of workers’accomplishment. The technique is a crucial one and it leads tosatisfaction of employee’s esteem. Recognition may be in form ofaward or plagues (Greenberg &amp Baron 2003, p 197). Provision offinancial security is another way of application and it entailsinvolving employees in sharing the profit gained by the company. Bythis, workers get financially secured and they get a sense ofbelonging to the company thus giving their best in operations.Supervisors are advised to promote socialization among employees asthis elevates the spirit of working as a team. When work is done withthe spirit of a team, presentation by the team is of a higherstandard than when work is done on individual basis. Lastly, theapplication of the psychological factors is by promotion of a healthywork force. According to a research undertaken by the Hershey FoodsCorporation and Southern California Edison Company, employees whohave a healthy workforce give better output than those lacking theworkforce.


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