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Psychological Theories Analysis

PsychologicalTheories Analysis

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PsychologicalTheories Analysis


Overthe past two decades, the study and practice in the field ofpsychology have gained momentum. The need for identifying thechallenges people go through and using the knowledge gained in thediscipline to provide lasting solutions to people is the main callingof a psychologist[ CITATION Ant02 l 1033 ].Psychology is founded on theories that are tested and have worked asa solution to the prevailing mental, physical and emotionalchallenges. The theories identified do not only give the immediatesolution,but also a solution that is long lived[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

SigmundFreud has played a critical role in psychology. In his theory ofpsychoanalytic theory, the psychiatric practice is referred to aspsychoanalysis. The cognitive mental ability in a person isinfluenced by a number of factors that revolve around emotions ratherthan physical. Such instances require a psychiatric intervention.This paper carries out comprehensive analysis of psychodynamicperspective and the trait theory[ CITATION Viv04 l 1033 ].

Keywords:psychology, mental and emotional challenges, psychoanalytic theory,psychoanalysis, trait theory and cognitive mental ability andemotions.

Personalityrefers to variations occurring in the organization of our bodies. Itis the personality that determines an individual differences inemotions, behavior and feelings. Personality development is animportant process in a person’s life. It helps that individual inidentifying their strengths, weaknesses and their attitude andbehavior. According to Freud, argued that behavior is caused bythoughts, ideas and desires in one’s brain that is not accessibleto the conscious. Through meta-analysis of our psychodynamics, we areable to identify and create a remarkable solution that heals theemotional, physical and spiritual well-being. Psychiatricunderstanding is crucial[CITATION Ker67 p 652 l 1033 ].

PsychodynamicPerspective by Sigmund Freud

Around1856–1939, Freud had initiated the plan to write about hispsychoanalysis findings on personality of an individual. Heformulated the theory of personality which emphasized on researchinginto the unconscious being in a person and making recommendations onthe right treatment for such. Unconscious in mental processes isbelieved to perform a central role in a person’s personalitytraits. It is the unconscious processes that motivate our mindforming our behavior. Aggressiveness and sexual needs according toFreud, performed the greatest role in determining the behavior of aperson. This theory is based on three postulates according to Freud.These postulates include: topographic model of the psyche, astructural model of the psyche and lastly psychogenic model ofdevelopment[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

Freudview on personality is attributed by the thoughts and the actions ofthe unconscious elements. With such understanding, it is clear thatpersonality is developed when our efforts are directed towardscreating a solution to biological impulses (id) and social restraint(superego) that the society has set out. The id tends to strivetowards achieving sexual and aggression drives that are dependent onpleasure and satisfaction. This rule is referred to as the pleasureprinciple. Superego focusses on how one ought to behave by creatingjudgment and conscience. This shows that they are responsible for ourbehavior actions. On the other hand, the ego plays the principal rolein fulfilling the demands of id and superego. According to Freud,personality development in the early years of a person is classifiedinto psychosexual stages. At such stages the id stimulates thepleasure seeking parts of the body[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

TheTrait Perspective by Gordon Allport

Thetrait is descriptive information about an individual’s feelings,behavior and thoughts. Gordon Allport (1897–1967) was one of thefirst theorist to argue the comprehensive concerning relationshipbetween trait and personality. His work was seconded by RaymondCattell (1905–97) carried out statistical procedures referred to asfactor analysis that briefs on the trait personality. The traittheory makes an assumption that the personality trait are relativelyenduring. Personality from trait theory is viewed as life processthat continues in its development with time. Trait theory is based onthe big five principles in personality development[ CITATION Ber09 l 1033 ].

Thesefive figure models have been agreed on by many scholars globally.They are irrespective of the individual’s place of birth norcultural back group meaning it universal. Openness to experience isthe first principle. It identifies actions, ideas and values. Thesecond one is Conscientiousness that values on the discipline,striving for achievements and competence. Thirdly, Extraversion isviewed responsible for determining the positive emotions,assertiveness and excitement. Agreeablenessfrom the fourth principle that build on the trust, compliance andstraightforwardness with the last one being neuroticism that explainstrain on depression, anxiety and self-consciousness[ CITATION Ber09 l 1033 ].

Contrastingand Comparing Psychodynamic Perspective and Trait Theory

Freudcreated the theory of psychodynamics approach that focused on theunconscious motives that drive and determine one’s behavior andpersonality. Gordon Allport believed every individual has somedominating character traits that determine our personality and thatis how we are identified as the key differences between person A andB. The dominant trait is referred to as the central trait that formour personality. When one of these central traits becomes dominantover the others, they are referred to as cardinal trait. The twotraits, cardinal and central are environmentally influenced throughour interaction with the surrounding[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

Whenthe child is developing from infancy to adulthood, interaction withrelatives, friends and environment defines their individualpersonality. The Freud theory majors more on the unconscious, whileAllport views more on the conscious part of the individual’s life.In other words, Freud argued that personality being based oninstincts that govern the higher individuality (superego). Allporton the other hand agrees, but points out that such drives aredeveloped in adult motives that are assumed to be autonomous.However, the two theories are almost similar with the differenceoccurring in the naming of these factors and contribution[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

PhenomenaContribute to Unhealthy Development

Healthydevelopment process in a human being is critical and should bewell-enhanced. Unhealthy development may hinder a person from normaldevelopment that may affect their thoughts, feelings and behavior[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].Several factors contribute to unhealthy development, the most commonfactor being heredity and environment. Somecharacter and behavioral traits are positive and others negative.When negative traits are passed on to the generations, they may beproblematic in their development. In addition, they may be behavioralbased or health factor that may lead to a number of disorders thatinfluences the life of that person`s health[ CITATION Ant02 l 1033 ].

Environmentplays a critical role in the general development of a person. Whilemost of the development trait or psychodynamics occurring at the ageof up to 5 years, the environment may cause harm to development byencouraging the child to develop cultural traits that are onlyacceptable to a few number of people. This would lead to rejection bythe majority causing problems in society and general interaction ofsuch an individual. Interaction with friends and relatives willalways lead to a person developing behavioral traits that predominantin them influencing their personal approach. The behavioralformation may occur due to nurturing practices, gender differencesand unique situations like traumatizing situations in rape experienceor other life threatening experiences[ CITATION Ber09 l 1033 ].

MostAppropriate Perspective to Apply On Creating Solutions to a Client

Thetrait perspective applies to be the most appropriate to use whenindividuals require counselling and psychiatrist attention. In thisregard, the person requiring the attention may experience moreattention to his state through the trait perspective. Trait theoryexplores the entire human society with key attention to thefundamental basis that build the human character and behavior.Understanding the behavior, thoughts and feelings of a person itselfplays a critical role in creating harmony and cohesion in anorganization. Nowadays, many employers are applying the trait theoryin analyzing the type of employees they have, their abilities andtalents[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].

Accordingthe analysis laid down by the trait theory, it is clear that itmajors on the fundamental behavioral approach that ought to beacquired in a good employee. Apart from that factor analysisidentifies the basic clusters of items that define our behavior,feelings and thoughts. Furthermore, these character traits discussedare universal, that is, they are possessed by all humankind.Understanding them would mean one is able to understand others andcreate an environment that favors their personal development[ CITATION Viv04 l 1033 ].


Aftera critical review of the two theories, personality forms afundamental determinant of how human beings ought to live with othermembers of the society. Both Freud and Allport agree that personalityshould be considered at all stages of development. Developing apositive personality approach lifts one’s self-esteem and buildtheir confidence in themselves. Such a person develops an assertiveapproach to issues affecting them. Assertive mental analysis andjudgment allows a person to identify and reason genuinely andrationally. Rational thinking is a key element in a person that helpsin communication between our minds and emotions[ CITATION Ker67 l 1033 ].


Anthony, B., &amp Jeremy, H. (2002). Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Contemporary Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Bernardo, J. C. (2009). The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications. West Sussex: John Wiley &amp Sons.

Kernberg, O. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of American, 641- 685.

Viviane, G. (2004). Emotional Development in Psychoanalysis, Attachment Theory and Neuroscience: Creating Connections. East Sussex : Routledge.