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Chapter 7

Q. 2

Criticisms regarding theintelligence cycle imply that it often fails to work in the realworld scenario. This is because policy or decision makers use thecycle as a means of supporting their decisions rather than as thebasis of their decisions. In order to enhance its implementation inreal life, it will be necessary to redesign the cycle by changing itsgoal. Thus, intelligence will be used as a supportive rather than amain aspect of the decision making process. The three cycles may alsoneed to be applied simultaneously, enhancing meaningful collaborationwithin the stakeholders in order for the process to be effective inthe real world1.

Q. 3

Models such as the intelligencecycle help people’s ability to understand the intelligence process.This is because the model explores the different stages through whichinformation must go in order to produce intelligence. The steps areeasy to follow, making it possible for readers to understand andreplicate in real life situations2.This makes intelligence production accessible to bothnon-professionals and experts in the field.

Chapter 8

Q. 1

It is easier to conduct offensivecounterintelligence as compared to defensive counterintelligence.This is because offensive counterintelligence offers one ample timeto conduct thorough investigations on the enemy’s system beforelaunching their operations. Thus, it has a higher success potentialthan defensive counterintelligence. On the other hand, defensivecounterintelligence requires immediate action, and thus one has torush through the intelligence cycle within a limited period. Thismakes it more cumbersome since detailed investigations need to beconducted urgently to counter the enemy (Jensen et al., 2012).

Q. 3

Disinformation is an art ofdishonesty used in intelligence agencies to spread incorrectinformation about a country. Disinformation can be either positive ornegative for a country depending on its goal. The major aim ofspreading disinformation is to disturb, confuse, or incite. This canbe advantageous when used by a country as a counterintelligencestrategy against an enemy. When used in this manner, it helps countryachieve peace and victory for a country. However, spreadingdisinformation may be disastrous for a country. This can be the caseif the disinformation presents a country’s intelligence agency asdishonest and untrustworthy. This may break the trust of the citizenshence brewing trouble within a country, as is often the case whensensitive disinformation is spread (Jensen et al., 2012).

Q. 4

Other automatic disqualifiersinclude intellectual property violations, underage, that is below 18years of age, citizenship status, and mental health status.

Q. 5

Intelligence sharing is essentialin a country since the different agencies work together towards thesame goal, that is, world and regional peace. However, issues ofconfidentiality arise when intelligence is shared among differentagencies due to harmful disclosure. There is need to strike a balancebetween these two opposing factors in order to achieve harmony andenhance efficiency. Classifying information into top secret, secret,and confidential categories enables agencies determine theinformation they need to share with other agencies hence, satisfyingthe need-to-know- obligation. Thus, over-sensitive information willremain a secret while sharing of other information will be open.Disinformation and counterintelligence are useful measures forstriking this balance in an era where it is hard to keep secretinformation secret. Open communication channels enhance success andcollaboration, but strategic dissemination of information reduces thepossibility of the right information landing on the wrong ears. Spiesuse information sharing to lay traps or thwart the plans of a country(Jenkins et al., 2014).

Chapter 9

Q. 2

Covert operations refer to thoseconducted in utmost secrecy such that the public is unaware of itsintentions or motives. The best example of a covert operation is theOsama killing. If I were the president of the U. S, I would allow theOsama killing to take place. This is because his case was a matter ofnational security and world peace. Osama had single-handedly led theAl- Qaeda terror group to attack America and this claimed the livesof several people3.Thus, his death would be justifiable. This implies that I wouldallow the covert operations that enhance the nation’s security.This is in line with my desire to serve citizens and ensure a safeenvironment. On the other hand, I would not allow the Iran-Contraaffair since it had personal and illegal touches. Thus, I would notinvolve myself in law breaking covert operations as president.

Q. 3

Covert operations havefar-reaching implications. They require highly trained personnel toensure their successful completion. The military is trainedspecifically for this purposes hence it is essential to involve them.However, I do not agree that the covert operations should be carriedout by the military exclusively. There is need to collaborate withother agencies, such as intelligence, in order to succeed in covertoperation. Thus, although the operation must be carried out in uttersecrecy, the military cannot carry out this exercise exclusively.


“Strategic Cyber Intelligenceis Essential to Business Security, INSA Says.” (2014). HomelandSecurity Today Staff.

Jenkins, B. Liepman, A. &ampWillis, H. (2014). “Fight Today’s Terrorist Threat, NotYesterday’s.” RandCorporation.

Jensen, C. McElreath, D. &ampGraves, M. (2012). Introductionto Intelligence Studies.New York: CRC Press.

Kimery, A. (2011). “Al Qaedaafter Bin Laden.” HomelandSecurity Today.

1 “Strategic Cyber Intelligence is Essential to Business Security, INSA Says.” (2014). Homeland Security Today Staff.

2 Carl, J. David, M. &amp Melissa, G. (2012). Introduction to Intelligence Studies. New York: CRC Press.

3 Andrew, K. (2011). “Al Qaeda after Bin Laden.” Homeland Security Today.