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Research Article Critique


ResearchArticle Critique

ResearchArticle Critique


Marr,et al. (2010). Implementing peer coaching fluency building to improveearly literacy skills.

ReadingImprovement 47(2),74-91


Theauthors of the study above are Beth Marry Marr of Meredith College,Rebecca Kavel of Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools, Bob Algozzine ofUniversity of North Carolina at Charlotte and Katherine Keller Druganof Behavior and Reading Improvement Center (Marr, et al 2010).


Thetitle of the study was “Implementing Peer Coaching Fluency Buildingto Improve Early Literacy Skills” (Marr, et al 2010). The titlemeets the APA requirement since it reflects the content and thepurpose of the study.


Thejournal name is Reading Improvement, the volume number is 47, issuenumber is 2, and the pages are from 74 to 91.


Thearticle was obtained from the publisher’s website by subscriptionthe url for the website is&ltwww.projectinnovation.com/Reading_Improvement.html&gt


Theabstract of the article clearly corresponds to the standards of theAPA manual by giving the highlights of the whole study.


Thehypothesis of the study was that:

“Readingis the most critical academic skill students will learn and one ofthe best predictors of overall success in school and society”(Marr, et al 2010).

Accordingto Marr (2010), the research questions are

  1. “To what extent does oral reading fluency performance improve for students participating in Peer Coaching Fluency Building compared to peers participating in district-directed core reading activities?” (Marr, et al 2010).

  2. “To what extent does oral reading fluency performance improve for students participating in the Peer Coaching Fluency Building compared to peers also participating in targeted, small group supplemental instruction or individualized supplemental instruction?” (Marr, et al 2010).


Theindependent variable is additional instruction while the dependentvariable is low academic score.


Theresearch adopts mixed methods of both qualitative and quantitativemethods. This is because it includes measuring reading abilities andacademic grades. The type of research applied is a case study.


Thenumber of students who participated in the study was 541 studentsdrawn from fourteen schools. The study involved two groups. Thegroups were identified as follows: One group of 219 students fromschools that were involved in a multiyear research project andanother group of 322 students from demographically-matched schools(Marr, et al 2010). The sample was selected using a random samplingmethod where 14 elementary institutions were selected from manyschools in a suburban United States district.


Inthe study, data is described using numbers and scores of students.The study uses percentages to explain the data and also adopts chisquare to analyze the data collected. Validity and reliability of theinstrument are established using median alternate-form reliabilitycoefficient and concurrent validity estimates (Marr, et al 2010).


Accordingto APA format, the article should have one inch margin on all sideswith a running head title and headings on all sides (in APA Manual2.01 to 2.03, page 24). The citations should include the surname andthe year of the publication of the source that must be included in areference list on the references page (in APA Manual, 2.11, page 37).The level of headings includes first-level headings, second-levelheadings, third-level headings and fourth-level headings (in APAManual, 2.06 pages 29). The order of images should be alphabeticallyorganized in an appendix page (in APA Manual, 2.13, page 38). Thespacing should be double all over the document (in APA Manual, 2.06,page 29).


Accordingto APA standards, the article has a heading that does not meet allthe regulations of the heading since it omits institutionalaffiliation. The article has an abstract that is not labeled inaddition to a short introduction part. The article under review hasan organized methodology which develops into a well explained resultspart. The discussion part of the article is well described labeled.The article has clearly indicated, references part and appendicessection as per APA standards.


Thereference list was done correctly and there is a reference for everymaterial cited from outside. For instance, the study quotes Bradleyand Doolittle (2007) and includes their journal in the reference listas follows:

Bradley,R., Danielson, L., &amp Doolittle, J. (2007). Responsiveness tointervention: 1997 to 2007. TeachingExceptional Children,39 (5), 8-12.


Thelimitations to the study are subject characteristics and datacollection due to the involvement of children, who may provideinappropriate or incomplete information.


Theresearch included ethical procedures by involving school authoritiesand involving teachers in the research methods.


Theresearch involved an appropriate topic that was clearly written. Thetopic also included relevant material and content of study as well asthe items under hypothesis. The topic clearly develops intoappropriate research questions that guide the entire study, analysisand provision of recommendations. The research covers a criticaltopic that is relevant to the educational knowledge, especially incontent delivery by teachers. In addition, the study offers relevantconclusions that will enhance the development of teaching andlearning process. The research covers a relevant topic whose resultsand recommendations will be beneficial to curriculum development.They will be able to understand the level of content to allocate tochildren at different levels. This will help them develop aneducational curriculum that touches on the relevant issues of thecommunity. This makes the research not only relevant to education,but also to the development of other social disciplines in thesociety.


DirectQuotation: Quoted from the discussion section

Marr,et al (2010) states, “The children who participated in PCFB showedstatistically significant growth in reading fluency as compared withtheir peers in &quotcontrol&quot second grade classrooms.”


Paraphrasingthe block quotation

Accordingto Marr et al (2010), there was a significant growth in statisticalterms in regard to the reading fluency of children who took part inthe PCFB compared to the “control” second grade class of the samelevel.



Marr,et al (2010) states,

“Theoral reading fluency intervention that we evaluated is practical andmanageable in the classroom. It is easy to implement because studentslearn to monitor and document their own progress and improvements.After initial implementation, students take ownership of thepractice. As with other peer-mediated and repeated readinginterventions, when given the opportunity to read stories on theirown level, the students gain confidence in their ability and becomeexcited about reading.”


Marr,et al. (2010). Implementing peer coaching fluency building to improveearly literacy skills.

ReadingImprovement 47(2),74-91.