Research Designs and Methods
RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS 6
ResearchDesigns and Methods
Crowe,M. & Sheppard, L. (2010). Qualitative and quantitative researchdesigns are more similar than different. Internet Journal of AlliedHealth Sciences And Practice, 8 pp. 1–6.
Inbroad explanation, the authors of the paper argue that scientificresearch is mainly aimed at investigating phenomenon aimed atanswering questions through the use of methodically predefined laiddown procedures in order to answer the question through thecollection of evidence to answer raised questions. They allege thatscientific research entails the use of empirical data and to avoidsubjectivity through mainly through avoiding the use of findingswhich are pre-determined. Crowe and Sheppard further state that thefindings of a scientific research should be pertinent. This isin order to come up with findings that are relevant and can beused beyond the study.
Bryman,A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how isit done?. Qualitative Research, 6 (1), pp. 97–113.
Theauthors` presents to us the two main types of research methods namelyqualitative research and quantitative research. They state thatqualitative research seeks to answer questions based on theperspective of the population in which the research is beingconducted. Specifically, qualitative research aims at gatheringinformation which pertains to a specific culture which involves theirmorals, beliefs, behaviors, and the societal contexts of specificpopulations. In psychology qualitative research involves using theinformer`s point of view to try and comprehend humanbehavior. Qualitative research involves people studying people, andsince fundamentally all researchers bring attitudes, bias, prejudiceand values to their research. It requires acknowledging the same andintegrating it into the research in order to have an objectiveresearch. A good example of a qualitative research method would beunstructured and group interviews generating qualitative data throughthe use of open questions. This allows the respondent to talk in somedepth, choosing their own words. This helps the researcher develop areal sense of a person’s understanding of a situation. However, itcan be time consuming to conduct the unstructured interview andanalyze the qualitative data.
Janesick,V. J. (2000). The choreography of qualitative research design.Handbook Of Qualitative Research., pp. 379–399.
Theauthor argues that it is important to note that information gatheredin qualitative research is normally in non-numerical. The articleargues that this research method makes use of journals, theopen-ended questionnaires, interviews and unstructured observations.Basically, information used in qualitative information descriptivedata and making it difficult to evaluate it when compared toquantitative data. The utility of qualitative research is mainly whenconducting research at an individual level, and to figure out, inprofundity, how individuals think or feel. However, it is tedious anddifficult to analyze data in qualitative research as it entailsprecise description of informants` responses. The analysis is complexrequiring precise explanation of sample participant answers, forexample, finding answers to interviews and open questions into broadthemes. Diaries and interviews quotes might apply in illustratinganalysis point. Expertise knowledge is crucial in interpretingqualitative data. Great care ought to be taken when interpreting thequalitative data for instance when dealing with mental illness.Qualitative research involves people studying people and sincefundamentally all researchers bring attitudes, bias, prejudice andvalues to their research. It requires acknowledging the same andintegrating it into the research in order to have an objectiveresearch. A good example of a qualitative research method would beunstructured and group interviews which generate qualitative datathrough the use of open questions. This allows the respondent to talkin some depth, choosing their own words. This helps the researcherdevelop a real sense of a person’s understanding of a situation.However, it can be time consuming to conduct the unstructuredinterview and analyze the qualitative data.
Liamputtong,P. & Others (2009). Qualitative research methods. Australia:Oxford University Press.
Intheir article, Liamputtong et.al, states that qualitative researchmethod uses three major research designs namely:-
Thisresearch design seeks to explain how things affect each other. Itinvolves answering the question of how different variables affect theoutcome of a phenomenon. It seeks to analyze cause-and-effect andexperiments involving causal relationships look into the how one ormore variables affects one or more outcome variables. Causal researchalso seeks to establish whether variable results to a change in adifferent variable. For instance, causal research would involvevarying the amount of a cure and then evaluating the outcome on theparticipants of the study.
Descriptiveresearch design aims at determining the existing status quo of aperson or a group of people. Importantly, descriptive research is notaimed at measuring the effect of different variables but rather atdescription. Such would be when conducting a poll to determine thepreferred candidate in an election
Relationalresearch design aims at investigating the correlation connecting twoor more variables in a phenomenon. The variables used in thecomparison already exist in the population and it is a matter ofdetermining the relationship between them. Such a study would involvescrutinizing the number of females and males purchasing a rock CD orjazz CD. This means that it analyzes the relationship between genderand partiality in terms of taste of music.
Lucas,P. J., Baird, J., Arai, L., Law, C. & Roberts, H. M. (2007).Worked examples of alternative methods for the synthesis ofqualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews. BMCMedical Research Methodology, 7 (1), p. 4.
Thearticle states that quantitative research method mainly seeks tocalculate data and generalize results obtained from a samplerepresenting the population under investigation. It also argued thatthe method seeks at quantifying the frequency of diverse observationsand views in a selected sample. Occasionally qualitative research isalso used to elaborate findings in a research because the methodcollects information in statistical form. This information can thenbe categorized, ranked in order, or calculated in terms of units. Analysis of the data can then be done through graphs, pie charts andtables. Most data is gathered through experiments in addition toopen-ended questionnaires.
"Ostlund,U., Kidd, L., Wengstr"Om, Y. & Rowa-Dewar, N. (2011).Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed methodresearch designs: a methodological review. International Journal OfNursing Studies, 48 (3), pp. 369–383.
Theauthors give us the three main research designs in quantitativeresearch namely:-
1. Descriptive-Itis also referred to as observational as it entails observing thesubjects without interfering with them. A descriptive study takesvarious forms one of which is a case which involves simply reportingdata on one subject. Others forms include the cross-sectional studieswhereby a sample is taken and tested to determine the relationshipbetween them. A cohort study on the other hand involves measuringsome variables at the beginning of research and then exposing thesubjects to some conditions and then re-evaluating them after a givenperiod. Other researchers refer to this design as longitudinal butonly in circumstances involving experiments.
2. Experimentalstudies- they are also referred to as as longitudinal orrepeated-measures studies, in support of observable reasons. Thestudy simply involves observation of subjects which can either beconducted in the laboratory or in the natural environment.
3. Survey-it entails participants in the study answering questions presented tothem through interviews and questionnaires. Afterwards the researcheranalyses the responses and presents it in the manner they deem fit.