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Respiratory and Digestive System


Respiratoryand Digestive System

Respiratoryand Digestive System

Macroscopicdescription of the respiratory system

Airgets into the nostrils and bypasses the nasopharynx, oral pharynx,glottis, trachea, and the bronchi which divides into right and leftpathways.


Theair then enters into the bronchioles, which ends in a cluster ofmicroscopic tubules called alveoli.

Descriptionof the macroscopic structure of the digestive system

Themacroscopic structure of the human digestive system is composed ofmouth that breaks down and mixes food with saliva. The throat(pharynx) directs food into esophagus, which drains into the stomach.The stomach is a muscular bag that mixes and grinds. The foodbreakdown is enhanced by powerful enzymes and acids secreted in thestomach. The food moves to the small intestine where furtherdigestion occurs with the help of secretions from the pancreas,liver, and bladder. The small intestine absorbs most of thenutrients, and then passes the remaining material into the colonthrough peristalsis. The colon is 5-6 foot long which mainlyextracts water from the food. The colon is attached to the rectum, an8-inch chamber that links the colon with the anus. Lastly, the anusis the last section that excretes the solid waste material from thedigestion (Fogiel &amp Research and Education Association, 2000).

Microscopicstructure of the digestive system

Oneof the microscopic structures of digestion includes the salivaryglands in the mouth, which produces secretion used for digestingstarch in the mouth. The other essential structures are the valvessuch as gastric sphincters that control outgoing and incoming foodsin they are found at the entrance and exit of the stomach bag. Thevilli are fingerlike structures in the stomach and the smallintestine that helps absorbs food nutrients. In addition, theepithelium walls synthesize hydrochloric acid that helps in fooddigestion (Fogiel &amp Research and Education Association, 2000).

Describea single digestive cell from the stomach, from the small intestine,and from the large intestine.

Theepithelial cells are digestive cells that can be found in thestomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. These cellsproduce mucus, as well as helps in the absorption of essentialnutrients. The cells are finger-shaped, hence they also help totransport food across the colon (Fogiel &amp Research and EducationAssociation, 2000).

Describethe various cells lining the respiratory tract, including the nose,pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and alveoli.

Thenose contains sebaceous and sweat glands that are attached to shortand thick hair called vibrissae. These particles help in filteringout big particles from the inhaled air. In addition, it contains theolfactory neurons that help to detect various smells. The pharynxmainly contains the goblet cells that are essential in the productionof mucus. On the other hand, the trachea mainly contains acombination of the columnar epithelium and the goblet cells.Similarly, the bronchi are composed of goblet and columnar epitheliumcells like the trachea. Lastly, the alveoli contains type I alveolarcells (membranous pneumocytes) and type II (granular pneumocytes)(Fogiel &amp Research and Education Association, 2000).

Whyis the digestive tract called the second brain?

Thedigestive tract can be considered as a second brain because since ithas an independent nervous system known as enteric nervous system.The structure contains 100 million active neurons (Fogiel &ampResearch and Education Association, 2000).

Whatare the diseases associated with smoking?

Smokingis associated with diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infertility, high bloodpressure, increases vulnerability to cataracts, and musculardegeneration (Fogiel &amp Research and Education Association, 2000).

Disadvantageof the liposuction

Liposuctionis a quick weight loss method that involves extraction of fat beneaththe skin through small incisions a surgeon makes on the skin.Although this technique can help patients to attain immediate weightloss, it does not solve the underlying nutrient issue that had led tothe excess fat accumulation. This implies that if patients fail tochange their dieting and exercise habits, the fat accumulationgradually creeps back (Fogiel &amp Research and EducationAssociation, 2000).


Fogiel,M., &amp Research and Education Association. (2000). Anatomy&amp physiology.Piscataway, N.J: Research &amp Education Association.