Social security act
SocialProblems are behaviors that members of the society view asundesirable. Social policies, on the other hand, are measures thatcan be put to stop or solve the social problems in any given society.These two aspects work hand in hand towards achieving a noble andsound society. With an analysis of the social problems and the socialpolicies, they give an individual insight on the ways to thedefinition of social problems as well as tackled in the contemporarywelfare boundaries. They also offer analysis of the obligationsascribed to the citizens, professionals as well as other stakeholdersinvolved in these processes (Attarian,2002).
Socialproblems are numerous in every society. Social problems in onesociety tend to differ from the social problems of the society.However, there are some social problems unique to differentsocieties. Examples of social problems in the society includeunemployment, crimes, and murders among others. For a society to besuccessful, effective policies need to be formulated and enacted.These policies will greatly help in offering a solution to theavailable social problems. Social Security Act that was formulated inyear 1935 is a good example of policies in the world that areavailable. Despite some shortcomings related to it, it has manybenefits that can be pointed out in its efforts towards solvingsocial problems that were numerous among the citizens of the UnitedStates (Bent-Goodley,2003).
Socialproblem can is a condition that the majority of the community viewsit as being undesirable. Putting into consideration the policy in theSocial Security Act of 1935 the main social issues that resulted tothe making of the social policy was to counteract with the socialproblem of unemployment and the welfare of the United Statescitizens. It was an economic crisis social problem that was beingfaced by most of people in that era. The policy in its attempts tooffer solutions to these problems enhanced the provision of insuranceto the unemployed, insuring the old age as well as the welfareprograms that are means tested (Baker,2001).
Theaspect of social security dates back to the ancient times. It formsthe pre social security periods. The human beings in the past hadgone through difficulties that were as a result of lack ofemployment. Disease, death, disabilities and also old age werechallenges that faced many people in the past. With the introductionto economics, the problems were considered as inevitable. They werealso considered to be a threat to the economic security of a person.As a society, recorded economic complexity it led to the emerging ofcities and villages in the isolated farms. The European nationsdeveloped groups and institutions with the aim of protecting andmaintaining the security aspects of their people (Deaven& Andrews, 2008).
Theorganizations that were recorded to have been formed first were theguilds. The organization was in the middle age and the pioneers weremerchants and craftsmen. The organizations comprised of people whoowned the same businesses. They came together and formed the guildsor mutual aid groups. The functions of these organizations were toregulate the employment issues and also production. They alsoprovided financial aid to the members when they were experiencingchallenges. If at all, there was a deceased person the organizationsmade contributions to help the families (Katznelson,2005).
Therewas a necessity of the state to involve itself with the welfare ofthe poor. It assumed responsibility for the economic security of thepoor people in the society. The government formulated the poor lawsto assist the poor people. The economic security problems were seento be affecting only the poor people in the society. In the year1601, the poor law was first formulated in Europe. The state was toassume the responsibility of the welfare of their citizens. Theeconomic security policy became introduced in America. It was dutiesimplemented by the English colonialist who had arrived in the land.They introduced the ideas and customs of their land which theyunderstood better (Morton,2012).
Thepoor laws came into existence in America. They resembled the originallaws in Europe formulated in 1601. The European colonialistintroduced the taxation method with the aim of supporting thedestitute. They formulated ways to differentiate the worthy poor andthose who were unworthy to be called poor. The distribution of therelief resources was the responsibility of the local authorities.Irrespective of the fact that economic security prevails in the wholesociety old age is an acute aspect in economic security. It includesthe possibility of retiring after working for a long time. There wasa need to formulate adequate systems to cater for the aspect ofretirement in the old age. The social security of the old people whospent their lives working was to be considered (Morton,2006).
Thefirst program to be devised in the United States was the pensions ofthe civil war soldiers. It was irrespective of the fact that theaspect of social security was unknown in America at that time. Itlater on arrived in 1935. There was a significant precursor that gavesomething similar to social security. It was done to a particularsegment in the population of America. There were benefits offered tohundreds of thousands of orphans and also widows. There were alsomany war veterans who were disabled and required the help of thegovernment (Pieters,2006).
Thecompanies in America were also known to give pensions to theretirees. Before the formulation of the pension plan, theseorganizations were known graduate old workers to perform tasks in thecompanies with the aim of reducing costs. Few companies were known topay retirement stipend but only those performing well in the marketsince there was no law indicating a right to retirement benefits. Inmost of the companies, the old workers were dismissed when they wereconsidered to be unproductive. No one cared of his or her socialsecurity at old age and this led to a population of poor old peoplewho relied on the government or other members of the society(Pennings,2001).
Atthe periods of the great depression in America, there were proposalsof the formulation of an old age system to insure people. It was atthe 1930s when these debates` discussion was on. The president ofunited states Franklin D. Roosevelt requested the congress make lawson the issue of social security. It was on January 17 when themessage was sent to the congress and later on in august of the sameyear the Social Security Act got implemented. It covered the benefitsto the old people, victims of accidents in the industries, insuranceto the unemployed, the disabled and also dependent women and children(UnitedStates, 2004).
Thepolicy stated a limitation of its provisions to all the workers whowere working in the industry and commerce. In other way, it wasaddressed to as the coverage of the program. It meant that the newlyintroduced social insurance was applicable to approximately half ofthe economy’s jobs. However, domestic and farm workers were leftout. The policy has faced numerous criticisms about this statement.It is because the majority of workers who were working in the omittedoccupational groups were the African Americans. The statement,therefore, revealed the essence of racial biases (Walker,2005).
Thepolicy’s other statement was provision of equitable welfare to themembers of the society. In support for this, the act recommendedinsurance for the jobless in the society as well as for those intheir old age. It was in the efforts of ensuring that all members ofthe society have fair social welfares. The past engineered thestatement that human beings were going through. The challengesincluded diseases and deaths among others. The main cause of theseexperiences was lack of employment (Attarian,2002).
Thepolicy got formulated for various reasons. An important goal of thislaw was to enhance maximum freedom in the American people’seconomic lives. The policy got enacted for the purpose of offeringsecurity for individuals and their families. It was encouraging theindividual’s initiative as well as saving in the hopes ofminimizing laziness, inefficiency, and dependency. Another objectiveof this policy was to protect the disabled and the elderly againsttheir illness expenses that would lead to drainage of their savings.The policy essentially enhanced the togetherness of families byoffering the children with an opportunity of growing up in securityand health (Bent-Goodley,2003).
Theinitial social security act was a policy comprised of elevensubjects. Among the eleven titles, six of them were outlines ofspecific programs. These programs incorporated the old ageassistance the benefits of old age retirement, aid to the dependentchildren, unemployment compensation, aid to blind people as well asthe welfare of the maternal and children. The act also enhancedcreation of social security board. It dealt with the establishment oftaxation methods for programs funding. The board would also ensurethe creation of the public health facilities. The states raised fundsby making use of unchallenged and existing taxing powers. Taxationwas done to the federal government. All this entailed the policy’sstrategy to enable it to raise enough capital to support the targetedgroups of people. The policy’s goal was also in the attempts of therespective nations to pull their economy out of depression (Baker,2001).
Thepolicy’s eligibility mainly focused on the groups of people thatseemed to be marginalized. These groups of people included the blindpersons, crippled and dependent children, aged people as well aschildren at their maternal age. These groups were eligible ofreceiving general welfare. It was under the influence of theestablishment of federal old age benefits that were meant for theaged persons. States had an obligation of making adequate provisionsto other disadvantaged groups of people in the society. These groups,therefore, becomes the eligible groups of these rules. The majorgroups of people that the rules or the policy was interested withincluded survivors, people with disability and the old agedindividuals (Deaven& Andrews, 2008).
Severalissues were related to the social security policy. There werediscriminations towards accessing the policy on the basis of race.The black people in United States got discrimination towards enjoyingthe benefits of the policy. The cause of this was partially becausethe democrats inhabited the south of America. The politicians in thesouth of America architected the law to prevent the entrance ofNegros in the social security benefits. As a result, the employers inthe south were worried that black people would not take theunderpaying jobs in their fields and companies. The black laborersand the domestic workers were, therefore, not covered in the old ageinsurance. It was irrespective of the fact that the black populationcovered 60% of the total population. It was important to note thatthe early act on the social security funds got carried on the racialbasis. The United States president Roosevelt made amendments to thelaw to exclude domestic and farm workers. It was to the benefit ofthe southern congress barons (Pennings,2001).
Itis of great importance to analyze the economics, social ideologiesand political aspects that have influenced the development of thesocial welfare policies in United States. Cultural forces have alsoinfluenced the formation of the security fund policies from 1935 tothe present day. The policies that have been covered are those thataddress the issue of discrimination, programs of insuring people,assistance to the public, mental health, health assistance, criminaljustice, housing and homelessness. It is also worth noting theeconomic justice for the oppressed people in the population. Theeffects of the social security policies can prevail in all aspects ofthe social life. Members of the oppressed population are theadversely affected people in the society. It is also significant tonote the similarity between the effects of the policy and theobligations of the social workers. There is a necessity to amend thepolicy so that there is an elimination of the oppression that isevident to be included in the policy (Morton,2006).
Thereare several outcomes that are as a result of the implementation ofthe social security program. One of the outcomes of the socialsecurity policy was the emerging of the insurance policies. Thestrategy had the objective of lessening the risks to the economicaspect of an individual. A person makes contributions on a regularbasis to the program and he or she is liable to be refunded in caseof loss. In the beginning, the insurance was mainly done on theproperty but on later stages it incorporated the aspect of socialinsurance. The physically disabled, old age persons, the dependentchildren and women, as well as the unemployed, got incorporated inthe social insurance policy. It resulted from the implementation ofthe social security act (Morton,2012).
Thesocial insurance which was the outcome of the implementation ofsocial security act also gave rise to a comprehensive address of theeconomic security problem. It was in the context of modernization inthe industrial society. The main concept of the social insurance wasthat the individuals would make their contribution to the centralfunds that were under the management of the governments. These fundswere in return used in offering support to the individuals when theywill not be in a position of supporting themselves. They were alsohelpful to less fortunate members of the society (Walker,2005).
Anotheroutcome of the implementation of the social security policy is theachievement of equity in the social welfare of all the members of thesociety. The social security enhanced weighted benefits on peoplewith lower earnings and reduced benefits over individuals earningheavily. The strategy helped the less privileged individuals in thesociety to have an added benefit which in return helped in bridgingthe gap among the members of the society. The policy’s strategy ofoffering aid to the dependant people of the society ensured improvedwelfare of these members (UnitedStates, 2004).
Thepolicy also led to an economic revolution. It was brought about bythe insurance that was being offered to the unemployed. They made useof it in carrying out beneficial industrial activities and thusgiving rise to improved economic revolution. Its achievement was thevirtue of the fact that the policy reduced the level of dependence inthe economy. The policy obligated the governments the responsibilityof providing for members of the society who were not able to supportthemselves. The aspect greatly brought about great economicrevolution which led to a significant economic growth (Pieters,2006).
Thepolicy was cost effective. The government of the United Statesmanaged to fully finance the programs without incurring any loss. Itused the taxation of the federal governments in their attempts tofinance their programs. All the less privileged people like the oldaged, persons with disabilities and the dependent children benefitedfrom this program. The unemployed individuals also benefited from theinsurance offered to them. The governments in return recorded a greateconomic growth. It is as a result of the unemployed carrying outvarious investments with the use of the insurance. The members of thesociety as well managed to invest in a more advanced level thanbefore due to a greatly reduced level of dependency. These factorsmade the program to be very effective in terms of cost (Attarian,2002).
Theissue of social security is very popular and involves the interestsof many people. It is also another program of the federal government.The economy of many countries is significantly affected by the socialsecurity policy. The policy targets the redistribution of wealthamong the elderly and also a reduction in poverty. It also entailsthe plan towards saving for the people of individual countries so asto enjoy the benefits in old age. Since the formulation and theimplementation of the security policy in United States, it hasgreatly assisted and offered benefits to many people in the society(Morton,2006).
Thepolicy, however, suffers from financial problems. Majority in Americacould not understand the policy it is as a result of the complexityof the policy. For instance, many people are worried on whether theywill receive benefits that are fair compared to those of otherpeople. On the current date, the benefits that are allocated by thesocial security are substantial especially for the elderly people.The issue of private pensions is on the rise with the inception ofsocial security. The research conducted indicates that 41% ofAmerican citizens aged above 65 years get their benefits from otherinstitutions other than the social security (Deaven& Andrews, 2008).
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Katznelson,I. (2005). Whenaffirmative action was white: An untold history of racial inequalityin twentieth-century America.New York: W.W. Norton.
Morton,D. A. (2006). Nolo`sguide to Social Security Disability: Getting & keeping yourbenefits.Berkeley, CA: Nolo.
Morton,D. A. (2012). Nolo`sguide to social security disability: Getting & keeping yourbenefits.Berkeley, Calif: Nolo.
Pennings,F. (2001). Introductionto European social security law.London: Kluwer Law International.
Pieters,D. (2006). Socialsecurity: An introduction to the basic principles.Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.
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Walker,R. L. (2005). Socialsecurity and welfare: Concepts and comparisons.Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open Univ. Press.
TheSocial Security Act of 1935 saw to it the formulation race and socialwelfare policy. It was in the efforts of offering a solution to theproblem of unemployment. It was one of the significant socialproblems in the society. The act got enacted in august 1935 under theleadership of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. However, variousissues or problems have been detected related with this act. One ofthe problems includes racial discrimination. It is in records thatsome of the act’s rules seemed to be unfavorable to the blackAmericans. It is also a major social problem in the society. It is,therefore, rhetorical for a policy meant to offer a solution tosocial problems creating another problem. However, there are somebenefits related to the formulation of this act. These benefitsinclude the provision for unemployment insurance, means testedwelfare programs as well as old-age insurance.
Thepolicy has since then been amended to incorporate the discriminatedgroups of people especially the black Americans. The aim of thepolicy is to redistribute money to ensure the elimination of povertyin the society. However the social security institution has facedmany challenges most of them being financial problems. As a result,the allocation of fair pensions to retired employees has beencompromised. It has, therefore, seen many people in the United Statesseek alternatives from other institutions besides the national socialsecurity. The government is, however, making efforts to fund theprogram to ensure that every person benefits from the institution.