Social Welfare Programs and Policies Assessment Measures
SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS AND POLICIES ASSESSMENT MEASURES 12
SocialWelfare Programs and Policies Assessment Measures
Abortionemerges as one of the most debated and divisive social issues in theUnited States. Even today, different individuals have differingperspectives on the social. To some individuals, abortion is usuallyviewed as an issue that should be made legal, despite its effects onthe society. On the other hand, some individuals view abortion in adifferent perspective, where they stand by the perspective that itshould never be made legal. Although there are different and divisiveperspectives concerning the issue of abortion, it has already beenmade legal in America. This has made the issue to even become apolitical issue during campaigns this is because there are those,who are still unsatisfied by making abortion legal. However, thereare some limits that go with the legalization of the issue sinceabortion is usually legal for a pregnancy not exceeding three months(Rose,2008). The issue of abortion attracts ethical concerns leading to thedivision amid people with differing perspectives. When it comes tothe issue of abortion, liberalists and conservatives have differingperspectives that make the debate on the issue even more intensive asthey try to reason and see whose perspective is right however, thetwo sides have always stood by their perspectives. In this paper,conservatives’ and liberalists’ positions regarding the issue ofabortion will be discussed.
Conservativesof abortion usually oppose on the legalization of abortion. Theseindividuals have a totally different view on abortion, which opposesdirectly or indirectly the perspectives of abortion liberalists.
a).One of the perspectives of the conservatives of abortion is thathuman life commences at conception, which qualifies abortion as amurder of a human being (Rose,2008). According to this view, human life is seen as sacrosanct so itshould be untouchable. Therefore, if life of a human being commencesat conception, then it is clear that a conceived embryo can be viewedas a vital creature that signifies the formation of a human being.This implies that the embryo should be respected as it just proves tobe a developing being. This means that in case a person feels free tokill a developing human, it is just the same as killing the humanhimself. Hence, proclaiming an abortion should be viewed as murder ofa human (Hawkins,2012).
b).Another reasoning that the conservatives of abortion bring forwardfor supporting their position is that the unborn baby, like a humanbeing, has distinct rights from the rights of the mother. All humanbeings have different rights that are even supported by theconstitution. Among the rights, which are safeguarded by theconstitution is the right to life this implies that every individualshould be safeguarded against anything that will lead to loss oflife. This right should be guaranteed at all times. However, abortiondenies the unborn the right to life, which indicates a violation ofhuman rights (Hoskings, n.d). Since the unborn is a human being, ithas separate rights from the rights of the mother. This implies thatthe unborn should be given the right to enjoy its rights assafeguarded by the supreme laws. Therefore, since the unborn is aliving human being, it should be given full rights to live. Thisholds to the position of the conservatives of abortion, which isagainst the legalization of abortion.
c).The conservatives also argue that fetus do not have the capacity ofasking to be born this option only lies with the adults. Therefore,whether a woman chooses to become pregnant or not, conservatives feelthat abortion denies a human being an opportunity to live. This is aright, which the embryo is not in a position to defend. Although someindividuals are of the opinion that humans only apply the right ofchoice when they become old enough to reason, others have a feelingthat a competent adult have the capacity of speaking to those thatare not capable of speaking on their own. Therefore, conservativesare of the opinion that the fetus should be defended as they are notcapable of defending themselves.
d).Besides, the conservatives of abortion usually have the opinion thattaxpayers’ resources should not be utilized by the government inproviding abortions. According to the conservatives’ idea, theyusually view abortion as a crime since it entails the killing of aninnocent human being. The unborn is usually seen as an innocent beingas it cannot be in a position to defend itself and does not have thecapacity to do harm to anyone. Therefore, by proclaiming an abortion,one commits the crime of murder to defenseless and innocent being.Support of abortion by the government through providing betterhealthcare to individuals doing abortion can be seen as supportingmurder crimes to the defenseless, which is wrong. There is no way thegovernment can support a crime through using taxpayers’ resourceshence, taxpayers’ resources should not be utilized in providing orsupporting abortion. In case it is utilized in such things, then thegovernment is seen as supporting crime activities since abortion ismurder and murder entails a crime.
e).In addition, the conservatives of abortion are of the idea thatpartial birth abortions should be prohibited. According to theconservatives, law should be fully enhanced without giving allowanceto some things that will still lead to the breaking of the law.According to them, in case partial abortion is permitted, there islikelihood that individuals will try offer excuses for committing thecrime in order to suit their position (Kainz,2013).This implies that people will try to justify abortion with partialbirth abortions. Therefore, there is no way that abortion should beprohibited and legal at the same time hence, partial birth abortioncannot be separated from abortion. This implies that partial birthabortions need not be made legal from the standpoint of theconservatives.
Furthermore,conservatives are of the opinion that instead of carrying out anabortion, women should adopt the children that they do not want. Attimes, individuals do not desire getting children for the basicreasoning that they do not want the children due to various reasons.However, according to the conservatives’ point of view, instead ofproclaiming an abortion due to the reasoning that the child isunwanted, a woman should give birth and then consider adopting thechild to willing parents.
Onthe other hand, conservatives have an opinion that abortion isterminating of life since the being inside the womb of a woman isliving. Something living can be defined as anything having thecapacity to grow. A fetus is a living being since it has the capacityof growing inside a woman that is pregnant. Therefore, an abortionceases the growing process of a fetus, which ends the future life ofthe being. Hence, abortion should not be made legal.
Liberalistsof abortion are those individuals that support the case for thelegalization of abortion. According to these individuals, abortion isan issue that needs legalization in order to give women the right andpower of making individual decisions.
a).According to the liberalists, every individual has the right to makefree decisions without the interference or bother from others becauseevery individual has a right to enjoy his/her freedom. Theseindividuals claim that women have the right of deciding whatevertakes place with their bodies this implies that a woman can eitherdecide to keep or terminate pregnancy because everything takes placein her body. After conception, the embryo forms inside the woman’sbody. This gives a woman the right to decide whether or not to abort.Therefore, women should be left alone to decide on whether to abortor not as they have the right to decide on what to do with whatevertakes place inside their bodies. Hence, carrying out an abortionshould not be seen as a crime, but as a right to make free decisionswithout interference.
b).The liberalists also claim that a fetus does not constitute a humanlife, which implies that it does not possess separate individualrights. A human being has characteristics that help inidentification without such characteristics, it would be difficultto establish that a fetus is a human being. Take, for instance, ahuman being has a fully developed mind and can associate with otherhuman beings (Freiburger,2013).However, a conceived embryo does not have the capacity to think orrelate with other human beings. This makes it difficult to identifyan embryo as a human being. On the other hand, an embryo existsinside another person’s body, which implies that it does not haveseparate individual rights from the rights of the mother. Since thefetus is usually inside the body of a woman, the woman has the rightof doing anything with the fetus since it does not have separateindividual rights. This makes the liberalists support the idea ofmaking abortion a legal practice.
c).The liberalists also support the idea of legalization of abortionsince they claim that the decision to have an abortion lies with awoman and the government should guard this right (Olasky,1995). According to the liberalists, a woman should have the choiceof either carrying or terminating a pregnancy because she is the onewho carries the fetus. Since it is the woman who carries the fetusanytime, she has the right to decide what to happen to the fetussince it is part of her body. Therefore, if she decides to terminatethe fetus, she can do it and the government should support thisright. The chief point here is that it is the woman that carries thefetus for nine months, goes with it anywhere that she goes, or sits.This makes a woman to have the right to do anything to the fetus.Hence, a woman should be allowed to make a choice of whether toterminate the pregnancy any time she wishes to do so since she hasthe right to her own body.
Inaddition, the liberalists are of the opinion that a woman has a rightto affordable and safe abortions. According to the liberalists’point of view, abortion needs to be made legal since if notlegalized, there is a possibility of having exceedingly many quackdoctors, who will be involved in the termination of pregnancy(Olasky,1995). This so because, every woman desiring to proclaim an abortionwill be required to go on the streets since they will fear thatseeking the services in the open may attract some charges since itwill be taken as a crime. Thus, they have to seek the services of anabortion in an environment where no one can notice. This isexceedingly dangerous because it will attract many doctors in thestreets who are not qualified, in an attempt to help the individuals,who desire to terminate their pregnancies in the dark. However, whenabortion is made legal, every woman will be capable of receivingspecial attention and care from qualified practitioners since womenwill not fear seeking abortion services from public hospitals.Besides, the legalization of abortion would be exceedingly criticalsince it would help in mitigating the number of deaths associatedwith the association of quacks in the abortion process theelimination of quacks will be feasible with the government legalizingthe issue, making it possible for women to seek and access safe andaffordable abortion.
Onthe other hand, the liberalists are of the idea of the legalizationof abortion since making it legal would aid in the handling ofspecial cases such as the unwanted pregnancies (Reagan,2010). Sometimes, a woman may want to terminate her pregnancyemanating from the issues surrounding the pregnancy. Take forinstance, a woman may want to have an abortion because the pregnancyshe may having may be as a result of a rape. When pregnancy is as aresult of a rape, it feels exceedingly bad for a woman to keep thechild that was conceived out of rape. This is because the woman willalways see the child in terms of a raping father this may make themother to think of the child as a rapist. Instead of letting themother to have a bad feeling, every time she sees her child, it isbetter to allow the mother to terminate the fetus rather than lettingher face the problem of associating with the child. Therefore,abortion should be made legal in order to facilitate putting themother at an agony of seeing her child.
Besides,the liberalists are of the idea that abortion should be made legal inorder to help women in carrying out their professionals withoutdisturbance. Sometimes, a woman may get pregnant while not preparedto rear due to schooling or other issues such as work. In such ascenario, women and girls would require carrying out an abortionsince pregnancies or children may not allow them in holding ontotheir careers properly (Reagan,2010). Take for instance, a girl may get pregnant while still incollege, but she may be committed to her studies since she may betargeting to complete her studies within a specified period. In sucha scenario, legalization of abortion would help the girl inproceeding with her studies. Therefore, legalization of abortion mayhelp in mitigating the rate of drop out since girls may go for anabortion and go back to schooling. On the other hand, legalization ofabortion will be capable of allowing women be in a position to holdto their professional positions since they can get a safe abortionand go back to their professions.
d).Furthermore, the liberalists are of the opinion that taxpayers’resources should be utilized by the government in providingabortions. The government has a role in providing safe and affordablecare, which is one of the prime rights to all individuals. Sincewomen are entitled to safe healthcare, they should be in a positionto receive safe and affordable abortions through the taxpayers’resources. This is critical in ensuring that women remain healthy. Onthe other hand, since women are usually involved in the payment oftaxes, they are supposed to be entitled to safe abortions, which ispart of their health concerns.
e).In addition, the liberalists are of the idea that abortion needs tobe made legal since it helps in facilitating family planning.Liberalists argue that abortion helps in a proper gapping inparenting since a woman can be in a position to plan the gap betweenone kid to another. This makes liberalists support partial birthabortions. This is because a woman may carry out an abortion,whenever she feels that she has a kid at the wrong time. This is alsocritical in mitigating the number of fatherless children. Ininstances, where abortions are not made legal, women go ahead andfather children without fathers. However, where abortion ispermitted, the number of fatherless children can be mitigated thisis because a woman will always feel free to carry out an abortion,when she knows that her child does not have a father (Borovoy,2010).
Individualswill always have differing opinions regarding what is wrong or right.When it comes to the issue of abortion, the issue raises ethicalconcern and different people have varying opinions on this issue.Conservatives of abortion usually oppose on the legalization ofabortion. These individuals have a totally different view onabortion, which opposes directly or indirectly the perspectives ofabortion liberalists. Liberalists of abortion are those individualsthat support the case for the legalization of abortion. According tothese individuals, abortion is an issue that needs legalization inorder to give women the right and power of making individualdecisions. Conservatives of abortion argue that human life commencesat conception, which qualifies abortion as a murder of a human being.According to this view, human life is seen as sacrosanct so it shouldbe untouchable. Another reasoning that the conservatives of abortionbring forward for supporting their position is that the unborn baby,like a human being, has distinct rights from the rights of the mother(Rose,2008). On the other hand, according to the liberalists, everyindividual has the right to make free decisions without theinterference or bother from others because every individual has aright to enjoy his/her freedom. These individuals claim that womenhave the right of deciding whatever takes place with their bodiesthis implies that a woman can either decide to keep or terminatepregnancy. Besides, liberalists are of the opinion that a woman has aright to affordable and safe abortions.
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