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PostTraumatic Stress Disorder


Inthe recent times, occurrence of many potentially traumatizingactivities has posed a challenge to the psychological well being ofindividuals and societies. For instances, massive terroristactivities, devastating natural disasters like Tsunamis and severeclimate changes among others have resulted to rapid increase of casesof the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) across the world. Thispaper will candidly discuss the three aspects of PTSD, and the meansto cope with the disorder. As indicated by U.S.Department of Health and Human Services,8.2% of persons in the age bracket of 30-34 years, as well as 9.2% ofpersons aged between 45-59 years are having PTSD, thus the need tooffer solutions in order to curb this crisis (1). Some of thesolutions include medication, pre Screening and interpersonalpsychotherapy among others. In conclusion, the role which can beplayed by governments and stakeholders such upgrading the existingmedical and counseling institutions is indicated.

Inthe last several decades, the world has witnessed many potentiallytraumatizing activities that have posed a challenge to thepsychological well being of individuals and societies. Suchhappenings include massive terrorist activities, devastating naturaldisasters like Tsunamis, earthquakes, floods and severe climatechanges. There have also been big political and economic crises,weakening social and family relations among other occurrences. Theseactivities are posing serious challenges to the well being of theindividual members of the society. A particular effect of any or acombination of several of the above occurrences is the rapid increaseof cases of the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Simpson &ampSimpson, 10). This has become a challenging occurrence that needsurgent medical and therapeutic attention in order to ensureproductivity of individuals within the society and longevity of lifefor affected persons. I personally think the challenge is reaching acrisis status, and needs to be handled urgently, as the last fewyears have seen a rapid rise in PTSD cases.

PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder of severemagnitude that results from exposure to any event or events that canresult in psychological trauma. Such events may includelife-threatening, frightening or other highly unsafe conditions (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 1). Peoplewho suffer from PTSD are usually very sensitive to their environmentand may experience trauma when faced with conditions similar to thosethat caused the disorder. Any trauma, which can be described as alife threatening or highly frightening event that affects anindividual’s emotional well, being, can cause PTSD. Complex PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD) occurs after exposure to traumasassociated with long lasting emotional and social problems.

Thesevere nature of these occurrences overwhelms an individual’semotional ability leaving the person vulnerable and unable to cope.Some causes of PTSD are extreme domestic violence, rape, assault,intensive bullying, and exposure to extreme physical pain, torture,kidnapping, and other forms of abuse. A person may sustain emotionaltrauma if they are the victims, or are witnesses of either of theexamples above and especially if the victims are closely related tothe witnesses.

Othernon-personal but equally traumatizing experiences that may result inPost Traumatic Stress Disorder include experiences of unpleasantterrorist activities, genocide or war of extremely horrendous nature,natural disasters like life challenging floods, earthquakes, volcaniceruptions and other similarly disturbing events (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 1).Some PTSD causes are in the family life and may include divorce,verbal or physical abuse, extreme poverty, lasting severe medicalconditions on the individual or close relatives among others. Causesof PTSD associated with the social life may include unemployment andinsecurity of threatening magnitudes. There are various aspects ofPTSD and various means of coping with it. There is the socialaspect, biological and the psychological aspects (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 1).This paper will discuss the three aspects of PTSD, and the means tocope with the disorder.

PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Statistics

PostTraumatic Stress Disorder cases have recently risen tremendously,especially in the category of war related complications. It is clearthat, PTSD cases have risen by 121% between 1999 and 2006, muchhigher than all disorders. By 2006, a total of 269,331 veterans werealready receiving disability aid in the US alone, not considering themillions who were not on any medication or counseling services (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 1).Thefigure below illustrates this fact.


Inaddition the US government official statistics show that roughly 22%of all soldiers going for peacekeeping war torn operations are havingPTSD, and one out of three security officers have sought helpregarding anxiety disorders during their service. Close to onemillion war veterans who served during the Vietnam War have PTSD, asdo more than 300,000 who served in Afghan Iraq operations till year2009, and 56,000 who served in Gulf war (Delahanty)


Apartfrom the war related issues, the general stressors in the society arecausing major psychological health issues in the community. Thequality of life today and demands of the living standards in thesociety are such that many people have coping problems. 8.2% ofpersons in the age bracket of 30-34 years, as well as 9.2% of personsaged between 45-59 years are having PTSD (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services).

(U.S.Department of Health and Human Services)

Thisis therefore a crisis, as the trend shows a rising number of peopleare getting affected and drastic measures need to be taken in orderto manage the crisis.

Suggestionsregarding reducing instances of PTSD and coping with it for Victims

Isuggest various ways to deal with the effects of PTSD some dealingwith individuals already affected and others dealing with thegovernment’s and society’s initiatives to combat the disorder,and for the individuals, the methods of coping maybe therapeutic ormedical. The medical methods are especially effective against thephysical or biological effects such as headaches, sleep disorders andstomachaches. Therapeutic interventions usually target thepsychological and social effects of PTSD. They may also be classifiedaccording to level at which it is done, and can be eitherpre-screening, preventive or for treatment.


Thisconcept has not been fully developed, but the basic method involveschecking the response time and hippocampal volume. It has been foundthat a higher response time and a smaller hippocampal volume has beenidentified as having links to PTSD (Delahnty, 1).

CognitiveBehavior Therapy (CBT)

Thisis a type of therapy that changes a patient’s behavior patternsespecially the patient’s control for thoughts that cause negativeemotions. Individuals are thought to identify thoughts that can leadto depressive moods and how to avoid or handle them. Exposure therapyhelps victims re-visit the traumatic thoughts in a manageable manner(Grohol, 1).


Themain procedure here is to involve the victim in social grouping as away to open up and share different experiences. This may introduceother procedures like exposure therapy. This method works well withpersons in advancing stage of PTSD, and these really need thepresence of others in order to feel secure and be able to view theircircumstances outside the self inflicted cocoon that leads toworsening condition. Being with others helps a victim reduce theamount of time they spend visualizing the very signs or conditionsthat lead them into PTSD (Canadian Mental Health Association,1).


  • Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) are commonly used to treat obsessive thinking and also remove effects of traumatic memories in persons with PTSD. They also help in handling aggressive impulses, compulsive repeat of trauma triggered behavior patterns and the ability to cope. These include Citalopram, Fluoextine, Sertraline among others.

  • Alpha-adrenergic antagonists such as Clonidine are effective in relieving nightmares.

  • Antipsychotics- these reduce effects of mood disorders

  • Antidepressants help with sleep disturbance symptoms (England, 15).


Theindividual should learn to live within their means, and assume ahealthy and balanced outlook towards life. This may involve managingone’s expectations in order to avoid unnecessary exposure tostrenuous conditions, especially stress related to living style, asthis is a major source of PTSD among the youth. In addition, parentsand guardians need to constantly monitor and guide youth and youngadults with regard to career choices, managing peer pressure, andmaking decisions about their lives. Lack of proper guidance is also amajor contributor of stress among people reaching the threshold ofself reliance (England, 16).

Governmentand Community Administrations

Thegovernment’s role is especially important in helping the victims ofwar, crime and natural catastrophes. This is as witnessed duringHurricane Katrina and Typhoon Haiyan in the US and the Philippines inrespectively. As a result of this, there have been incorporated unitsto manage stress and anxiety within existing medical and counselinginstitutions. However, the government is yet to establish enough,dedicated aid centers for vulnerable groups such as soldiers exitingfor missions at the time when they are likely to meet excessiveviolence, death and desperation, or victims of major events such asmass shootings, robberies with violence, natural disasters such asTsunamis, mudslides or hurricanes among others (Simpson &ampSimpson, 11). If the government can implement pre-mission counselcenters for soldiers, this could help millions of soldiers alreadyaffected, as well as their dependants and families, cope with thepost –war syndromes that normally gravitate into PTSD (England,16). Such efforts will also have the compound benefit of helpingvictims realize a productive life again, thereby reducing the burdenof care and provision for them and their dependants that usually fallon the government, insurance companies or family relatives. It willalso help the victims realize a healthy and fulfilling quality oflife for themselves and their families.

Communitycounseling centers have traditionally been set up to help victims ofmajor events cope with the aftermath. However, a majority of theseestablishments are owned or initiated by nongovernmentalorganizations and humanitarian aid groups. It would be important,with regard to the increasing number of PTSD cases, that thegovernment, through community policing, show more dedication towardsmanaging PTSD in modern communities through joint ventures betweenthe government and aid workers, government and community volunteersor just plain community campaigns. This will help the collectivemembers of a society manage this menace, and restore psychologicaland mental health of various societies (England, 16).


Fromthe aforementioned, it is clear that, cases of Post Traumatic StressDisorder have become rampant, and they have become a challenge in thesociety. As a result, the challenge of Post Traumatic Stress Disorderneeds urgent medical and therapeutic attention in order to ensureproductivity of individuals within the society and longevity of lifefor affected persons. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is ananxiety disorder of severe magnitude that results from exposure toany event or events that can result in psychological trauma. Suchevents may include life-threatening, frightening or other highlyunsafe conditions. Some causes of PTSD are extreme domestic violence,rape, assault, intensive bullying, and exposure to extreme physicalpain, torture, kidnapping, and other forms of abuse. Causes of PTSDassociated with the social life may include unemployment andinsecurity of threatening magnitudes. There are various aspects ofPTSD and various means of coping with it.

TheDepartment of Veteran Affairs shows that PTSD cases have risen by121% between 1999 and 2006, much higher than all disorders. By 2006,a total of 269,331 veterans were already receiving disability aid inthe US alone, not considering the millions who were not on anymedication or counseling services. There are various ways suggestedto deal with the effects of PTSD some dealing with individualsalready affected and others dealing with the government’s andsociety’s initiatives to combat the disorder. Some of them includepre screening, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), interpersonalpsychotherapy and medication. For instance, the main procedure ininterpersonal psychotherapy involves the victim in social grouping asa way to open up and share different experiences. There is the needfor parents and guardians need to constantly monitor and guide youthand young adults with regard to career choices, managing peerpressure, and making decisions about their lives. The government andcommunity leaders should also be involved by helping the victims ofwar, crime and natural catastrophes, as witnessed in various parts ofthe world such as during Hurricane Katrina and Typhoon Haiyan in theUS and the Phillipines in 2005 and 2013 respectively. This willreduce the number the number of people suffering from PTSD goingforward.


CanadianMental Health Association.Post-TraumaticStress Disorder (PTSD).2014. Web. Retrievedon April 7, 2014 from


  • This article is authored by Canadian Mental Health Association in 2014. In this article, PTSD is a mental illness, and it involves exposure to trauma involving death or the threat of death, serious injury, or sexual violence.

  • The article it aims at educating the public on what PTSD entails as well as ways in which it remains a social challenge in various parts of the world. The article also offers practical remedies to PTSD such as medication, care from the other partner among others.

  • The article inform on the need to report PTSD earlier enough so that they can be avoided, thus becoming an important part of this study.

DelahantyDouglasL. Towardthe predeployment detection of risk for PTSD. 2011. Web. AmericanPsychiatric Assn.&nbspRetrieved on April 7, 2014 fromhttp://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=102573

  • This article Toward the predeployment detection of risk for PTSD is authored by Douglas L. Delahanty, Ph.D. He is involved in Conducting pharmacological and psychological interventions to reduce or prevent the development of PTSD.

  • The article indicates the ways in which PTSD is a serious health issue which require immediate attention as it has affected above 10 million adults and children from America. For instance, PTSD cases arising from deployment rate to Iraq and Afghanistan is estimated to be between 6 and 13%.

  • The article also offers important ways in which PTSD can be reduced among these groups, thus important to this study.

England,Diane. ThePost Traumatic Stress Disorder Relationship: How to Support YourPartner and Keep Your Relationship Healthy.Adams Media. 2009. Web. Retrieved on April 7, 2014 from


  • This book is authored by Diane England who holds a PhD in clinical social work from the University of Texas at Arlington and aims to educate people on causes of PTSD.

  • The main purpose of this book is to educate people on ways to deal with emotions regarding their partners suffering from PTSD, helping partners cope up with their daily life issues, as well as handle sexual relationship when a partner suffers from PTSD.

  • This makes this book an important part of the study due to the fact that when someone suffers from PTSD, support from his partner is critical. This helps to strengthen relationship, thus a better society.

Grohol,John.What is Exposure Therapy?. PsychCentral.2009. Web. Retrieved on April 7, 2014, fromhttp://psychcentral.com/lib/what-is-exposure-therapy/0001640

  • This article is authored by Dr. John Grohol. Grohol. Is an s an expert in online psychology and behavior, author, researcher as well as the Chief executive officer and founder of the leading mental health and psychology network known as Psych Central.com. Therefore his works is crucial in educating people on various ways to cope up with psychology issues such as those arising from trauma.

  • From his article What is Exposure Therapy?, one can be able to learn on how Exposure therapy which is a specific type of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy technique that is often used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as phobias.

  • This makes it an important part of this research as an elaborate way in which exposure theory is used in curbing PTSD is given in detail.

SimpsonCarolyn and Simpson Dwain.Copingwith Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD): Dealing with Tragedy.The Rosen Publishing Group. 2011. Print. Retrieved on April 7, 2014from


  • This book, titled Coping with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD): Dealing with Tragedy is authored by Carolyn Simpson and Dwain Simpson and aims to educate people on causes and remedies to PTSD.

  • The book discuss such situations like natural disasters, physical abuse, wars, as well as violence which can cause stressful responses as well as describes methods of dealing with these delayed reactions to trauma,

  • From this one can be able to understand how PTSD can be handled as well as educate on ways to help others suffering from PTSD. &nbsp

U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. Whatis post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD?2011. Web. Retrievedon April 7, 2014 fromhttp://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml

  • This article, authored by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 2011 is important to this study due to the fact that it offers the definition to PTSD. According to the article “PTSD is an anxiety disorder that some people get after seeing or living through a dangerous event.”

  • The article offers the possible symptoms and treatment such as through medication among others. The following subsections are also available, Who gets PTSD?, What are the symptoms of PTSD?, Do children react differently than adults? How is PTSD detected? How is PTSD treated? Treatment after mass trauma among others.

  • From this one can be able to understand how PTSD can be handled and avoided through medication, psychological support among others among others, thus making it important to this study.


Student`s Name


Introduction 1

Massachusetts Position on Gay Marriage and Abortion 2

State of Massachusetts Stance on DOMA 3

Conclusion 7

Works Cited 10

GayMarriage andRightsin Massachusetts

SinceMassachusetts legalizedsame-sexmarriagein 2003, thenumberof States that havefollowedits footstepshas continuedto increase.WhentheSupreme Court struckout partsof theDefense andMarriage Act thatrestricteddefinitionofmarriageas onlybeingbetween a mananda woman,17 statestogetherwith theColumbia District havejoinedMassachusetts by legalizingsame-sexmarriage.Majorityof theStates (33) in US limitmarriageto heterosexualcouplesonly,while10 States recognizepartnershipsandunions(Koppelman 125-127).

Mostof the Republicans in Massachusetts are conservatives just like mostof the political elite at the national level. TheState is mainlycontrolledby republicanpoliticians,andthere havebeenincreasingcallsfrom socialconservativemembersof thestateassemblyto redefine thelanguageof thelegislation.Over therecentpast,thestateRepublican Party has beenveryvibrantin articulating dissentvoicesin relationto contentiousissuesof gaymarriageandabortion.WhiletheRepublican Party at thenationallevel has clearlyindicatedthatthepartysupportssamesexmarriageandabortion,someelectedmembersin thestatewhofeelthatthestateshould reconsiderits stanceto reflecttheconservativenatureof mostof thevotersin Massachusetts.Thiscallscomeat a timewhenthepartyis figuringhowto reorganizeits agendainorderto lure voters(Schoenberg Shira 1).

MassachusettsPosition on Gay Marriage andAbortion

Massachusettsis by andlargea liberalstatewhich wasamong theveryfirststatesin the United States to implementgaymarriagein 2003. In thepast,mostof theRepublican candidateswhohavewonelectionshavebeensocialmoderates. Forinstance,formerCellucci Paul andWeld William hadopenlyshownsupportforabortionrightsand gay marriages(Terkel Amanda 1). Eventhemanwhois poised to becometheRepublican Party governorCharlie Baker andthemostpromisingcandidateto scoopthecongressional seatRichard Tisei havebothindicatedthattheysupportgaymarriageandabortionrights.In fact,Tiseiis gayandis marriedto a man(Ebbert Spephanie 1)

Intheyear2003,thestateof Massachusetts madenewsheadlineswhenitbecamethefirststatein theUS to legalizesame-sexmarriage.Thisfolloweda courtrulingthata denialof marriagerightsto couplesin samesexmarriagewasin totalcontraventionto theMassachusetts constitutions(equalprotectionclause).Evenwith repeatedcallsfrom manyquartersto amendthisclausein theMassachusetts constitutionthat grantsequalrightsto marriage,regardlessof thegenderof thecouples,thestatelawsremainunchanged(Terkel Amanda.1) GayAmericans havebeenveryvocalin fightingfortheir rightto marryfrom 1960s,buttheir callshavealwaysfallento deafearsas theconstitutiondidnot recognizesuchformsof union.Since 1990,theissueof samesexmarriagehas beenat thecenterstagein manydebatesbothat thestateandnationallevel. Thesparkle beganin thestateof Hawaii inthe1990 after thehighest Courtaffirmedanylawthat bannedsame-sexmarriageunconstitutional,iftheadministrationcould not proofthere wereconvincinggroundsfordiscriminationagainst gayandlesbian couples.Thoughthisrulingdidnot resultto thelegalization of gaymarriagein Hawaii buthurledthecaseto subordinatecourtformoredeliberation,itledto extensivereactionsallover theUnited States. In thefollowingyearsmorethan 40 statespassedwhatcameto be calledDOMA (Defenseof Marriage Act) that definedmarriageas a unionbetween a mananda womanandconsequently couplesin same-sexmarriagecould not enjoysimilarprivilegesastheir counterpartsina heterosexualunion.Thisformof marriagewas,therefore, notrecognizedby thestate.Additionally in 1996 presidentClinton assertedthefederalDefense of Marriage Act statutethat affirmedthattherewas no legal compulsion upon a state to recognizegaymarriageperformedin anotherstate(Koppelman127).

Stateof Massachusetts Stance on DOMA

Soonaftertheenactmentof DOMA thestatesof Nevada, Alaska andNebraska madechangesto their constitutionto illegalize samesexmarriageto preventcourtinterpretationsof marriagethat would accordthisformof marriageequalprivilegesas heterosexualmarriage(Koppelman, Andrew 127). Nonethelessamid all theseconstitutionalamendmentsto bargaymarriage, theVermont Supreme Court in 1999 gaverespiteto mostgayactivists. In theruling,thecourtdeclaredthatcouplesin same-sexmarriageshould be entitledto alltheprotectionandrightsallied to a marriage.Conversely,thecourtleftitin thehandsof thestateparliamentto figureout howtheserightsandprivilegescould be accordedto suchcouple.Consequently in theyearthat followedthelegislaturepassedlegislationsgrantingcouplein samesexmarriagestherightto enterinto marriage.

Thebattleseemedlostforsame-sexcouplesin theUnited States, with manyStates adoptingthesimilarviewslike thosein theDOMA statute.Newrevivifies battlesensuedsoonafter whentheSupreme Court in Massachusetts decreedthattheconstitutionof Massachusetts guaranteedsame-sexcouplestherightto enterinto marriage.Inthiscaseunlike in theVermont case(wherediscretionwasleftin thehandsofthe legislatureto determinehowto guaranteeconstitutionsrightssame-sexcouples)theSupreme Court rulingcompelledlocalparliamentpasslegislationsyieldingrightsto couplesin thisformof marriage(Koppelman127). Someof thecitiessoonbeganissuingmarriagecertificatesto same-sexcouples.Manygayandlesbian coupleswould be seenon themedialiningup in governmentdepartmentsinmetropolisfor instance,San Francisco andNewYork to geta marriagelicense.Thoughmostof thesecertificatesissuedoutside theState of Massachusetts weresoonnullified,itbecameevidentthattheissueof samesexmarriageneededto be reconsidered.Conservativecongressmen with thesupportof thePresident Bush madefraughteffortsto makeconstitutionalamendmentsto barsame-sexmarriagebutin bothtrials,in2004 and2006 theycould not marshalenoughlegislatorsto passtheamendment.

Theincreasingnumberof conservativemembersin thestatecommittee,inthe stateof Massachusetts has beenveryvibrantin reconsideringthestanceof thepartyregardingsamesexmarriageandabortion.In March 2014,thesememberssucceededin includinglanguagein thepartyplatformopposingsame-sexmarriageandabortionrights(SchoenbergShira 1). TheRepublican Party chairmanof theplatformcommitteehighlighted thatthiswasa moveto tryto finda middlegroundforthatanti andpro gaymarriagesandabortion.Theelectionthat followedmeantto nominateRepublican candidateforthestatewideofficewasboycottedby theRichard Tisei, a congressional candidatein thecomingelectionsandwhois gay.Tisei raisedconcernsabout thestatecommitteeoppositionto same-sexmarriage.Thegubernatorial candidateBaker Charlie has alwaystriedto avoiddivisive issuessuchas samesexmarriageandabortionthatthreatenedto dividetheparty.Bakerdoesnot opposesamesexmarriageandhadappointedTisei whois gayto be his runningin the2012 elections,a movethat has puthim at crossroadwith theconservativerepublicancommitteemembersat thestateof Massachusetts (Ebbert Spephanie 1).

InMarch,thestateCommittee adoptedasociallyconservativeplatformthat is anti samesexmarriageandabortion(Ebbert Spephanie 1).Over theyearstheGOP hadbeenverycautiouswhenaddressingissuesrelatingto samesexmarriageandabortionto avoidestrangingliberalpartymembersandvoters,andwhoformeda hugevoterbaseof theRepublican Party in Massachusetts. Congressman candidateTisei wroteto theGOP leadersin March before theconventionforselectingthecandidatesforthestatewideoffice,urgingthem to discardnationalconservativeplatformthatthreatenedto excludemanyciviliansin thestateincludingTisei whoisgay(EbbertSpephanie 1).

Themoveby statedelegatesto addresssocialissuessuchas abortionandsame-sexmarriageepitomizes in-housebattlesthat are ensuingfromdifferentstanceon socialissuesamong theRepublicans in Massachusetts. Thewranglesbetween moderateandconservativesmembersmirrorthestruggleover partyvaluesandprincipleswhich datebackto 1990 wherea Weld William wasjeeredby partyconservativeswhowereagainst abortion(SchoenbergShira 1).Thelatesteventsat thestatecommitteehavebeenrevivified by a newcropof politicianselectedin thecommitteewhoembracethenationalpartyplatformregardingabortionandsamesexmarriage.

Conservativesmembersof Republican partyvigorouslypushedto compelthestateGOP to embracethenationalRepublican partyplatform,which strictlyprohibitssamesexmarriageandabortionat allcost.Theconstantcallsforadoptionof a similarstanceat statelevel beganin September 2012, butin March 2013 thestatecommitteemoveto supportsociallyconservativeplatformthat is anti-abortionandsamesexmarriageis thegreateststridetowardsthe realizationof theaforesaidgoal.

Arecentstudyby thePew Research Center foundthatmorethan 60 % of youngRepublican voters(aged30 andbelow0 are in supportof samesexmarriageandabortionrights(Pew Research Center 6). Tisei citedthatthemovetheState Committee hadthepotential of makingtheagendaof theRepublican Party unacceptable amounttheyounggenerationof voters.In anothersurveyconductedby thePublic Policy Polling,itwasrevealedthatonly27 percent of Republican votersagedabove 50 yearswereopposedto same-sexmarriageandabortion(PewResearch Center 6). Chairmanof State CommitteeKirstenHughes notedthatsuchsurveysdonot reflectthetruewishesof mostRepublican voters,since anytimevotersin otherStates havebeenaccordeda chanceto voteon theissue,sometimesin moreliberalStates suchas California, theresulthas alwaysbeena strongstandagainst abortionandsamesexmarriage(Terkel Amanda 1).

Opponentsof same-sexmarriagein Massachusetts ledby thesociallyconservativemembersin theState Committee hopeto advanceencouragingotherStates to placeconstitutionalrestrictionsthat acknowledgemarriageas a unionbetween heterosexualindividuals(SchoenbergShira 1). Constitutionalamendmentswould avoidinterventionsby theSupreme Courts andeffectivelylimittherightsof same-sexcouples.At thenationallevel,theRepublican Partyhas alwaysmaintainedithardgroundof abortionandsame-sexmarriage,butthere is a growingnumberof socialliberalsin Congress whothreatento repealtheDOMA, a movethat is hugely supportedby Democrats andpresidentObama. Immediatelyafter winninghis presidentialelectionObama grantedpartialbenefitsto samesexcouplesof thefederalworkers.Obama saidthatunder thecurrentlaw(DOMA) itwould be unconstitutionalto grantmorebenefitssuchas insuranceto samesexcouplesandcalledforits repeal(TerkelAmanda 1).


Asaforementionedthestateof Massachusetts wasthepioneerin US in championing fortherightof gaycouplesandrecognitionrightto abortion.TheState is mostlycontrolledby republicanpoliticians,andthere havebeenincreasingcallsfrom socialconservativemembersof thestateassemblyto redefine thelanguageof thelegislation.Over therecentpast,thestateRepublican Party has beenveryvibrantin articulating dissentvoicesin relationto contentiousissuesof gaymarriageandabortion.WhiletheRepublican Party at thenationallevel has clearlyindicatedthatthepartysupportssamesexmarriageandabortion,someelectedmembersin thestatewhofeelthatthestateshould reconsiderits stanceto reflecttheconservativenatureof mostof thevotersin Massachusetts.Thiscallscomeat a timewhenthepartyis figuringhowto reorganizeits agendainpreparation for 2017 presidential election.Conservativesmembersof Republican partyvigorouslypushedto compelthestateGOP to embracethenationalRepublican partyplatform,which strictlyprohibitssamesexmarriageandabortionat allcost.Theconstantcallsforadoptionof a similarstanceat statelevel beganin September 2012, butin March 2013 thestatecommitteemoveto supportsociallyconservativeplatformthat is anti-abortionandsamesex marriageis thegreateststridetowardsthe realizationof theaforesaidgoal.Debate on gay marriage and abortion will take center stage in thecoming November election, as both liberals and conservatives inMassachusetts try to find a middle ground to embrace the interest ofboth groups.

WorksCitedEbbertSpephanie, RichardTisei to Boycott GOP Convection Antigay marriage platform promptscandidate’s protest.Retrieved on 3 April 2014 from: &lthttp://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/03/20/gop-congressional-candidate-richard-tisei-boycott-convention-over-antigay-marriage-platform/lROcGumGM0f1yWLEGQWdgJ/story.html&gtKoppelman,Andrew. TheGay Rights Question in Contemporary American Law.Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

PewResearch Center. Religion and Public Life Project.A ContentiousDebate: Same –Sex Marriage in the U.S.2009. Retrieved on 3April 2014 from:http://www.pewforum.org/2009/07/09/a-contentious-debate-same-sex-marriage-in-the-us/

SchoenbergShira. ConservativeRepublicans in Massachusetts Drive Anti-abortion, Anti-gay MarriageState Platform Change.2014.Retrieved on 3 April from:&lthttp://www.masslive.com/politics/index.ssf/2014/02/conservative_republicans_drive.html&gtTerkelAmanda. Massachusetts GOP Weighs Embracing Anti-Gay, Anti –AbortionNational Party Platform.2014.Retreived on 3 April from&lthttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/13/massachusetts-gop-platform_n_1881472.html&gt


Student`s name



Phenomenologyof Spirit

Phenomenologyof Spirit isa title given to the philosophical work of Georg Wilhelm FriedrichHegel. This was his first book and was published in the year 1807.This book describes the three stages that are there in thedialectical life of the spirit. The title can therefore, betranslated as ThePhenomenology of Mind orThePhenomenology of Spirit. Theterm phenomenology is used to refer to how Hegel develops hisdialectic concepts. This book has received praises as well as blamein relation to the development of the following aspects:

  • Communism

  • Theology of the death of God

  • Historicist nihilism

  • Fascism

  • Existentialism

Thispaper, seeks to provide information on the conflict discussed byHegel. In this case, I will state my stand and explain as to why mystand lies there. According to Hegel’s Ethical Order, individualaction for the collective brings about explicit conflict between twolaws which presuppose each other, but are also mutually exclusive,producing inevitable conflict. I will discuss whether his assessmentis correct or not, or whether one can act in accordance with thedivine law while leaving the human law intact, or vice versa.Generally I will provide information on whether it is true that thedivine law and human law necessarily come into conflict in individualaction or not. I will also give explanation on Hegel’s account ofthe conflict between human law and divine law, and defend my view ofit against the strongest version of the opposing view that I canthink of.

Hegel’sbook has a broad impact on the field of thoughts. These fields areinclusive of theology, sociology, philosophy, political science aswell as literary theory. This book has generally been thought ofbeing a philosophical inspiration to those who are consideredwrong-headed and disastrous to others. This is mainly because of thecontext of the book. There are those who believe that the context ishelpful to the society but there are those who feel that it is nothelpful but rather not of any assistance.

Hegeltries to summarize the elementary conditions and nature of humanunderstanding in the initial three chapters of the book. He makes anaffirmation that the mind does not instantly grasp the things in theglobe which is concurrent to what Kant says. Kant said thatunderstanding is not comprehension of “things-in-themselves,” orof chaste inputs from the right minds. A long-standing argument ragedin points of view between the ones who believed that “matter” wasthe most significant part of information and the ones who advantaged“mind.” Individuals who are known to be rationalists, such asPlato and Descartes, believed that the only truth which can betrusted is one which the mind arrives at, on its own. Empiricistssuch as Locke on the other hand, argued that all of our understandingresults from our own opinion of actual things, through our minds.Kant had sought to place his argument to rest by debate that theconnotation of objects is drawn from ideas, or “concepts,” thatstand amid matter and mind. The data entering the mind through theminds is always “mediated” by notion. In the initial part of thePhenomenology,Hegel illustrates that though ideas do in fact arbitrate matter, asKant upholds,

Hegel’sown comprehension of the way ideas exist implies a definiteinsecurity or instability in knowledge, which Kant neglects.

Kanton the other hand, seems to give an implication that a person’smind controls thought. Hegel tends to argue that a collectiveconstituent to knowledge also subsists. In fact, according to Hegel,worry always subsists between a person’s unique comprehension ofthings and the necessity for universal ideas: two movementsrepresenting the first as well as the second of the three so-calledforms of awareness. The first style of consciousness that is referredto as sense certainty is the mind’s first try to grasp thecharacter of a thing. This primary inclination runs up alongside theobligation that ideas have a feature that is universal. This meansthat dissimilar persons ought to be able to understand theseconcepts. This obligation leads to the next form ofconsciousness, perception. In the course of perception,consciousness, in its hunt for assurance, appeals to categories ofconsideration worked out amid persons through a few kind ofcommunicative development at the height of ordinary language.

Articulatedmore basically, the thoughts we encompass of the globe around us arefashioned by the language we verbalize, with the intention that thenames and meanings that other individuals have worked out before us(the whole time the record of language) profiled our perceptions.

Consciousnessis at all times pulled in two diverse guidelines.

Oursanity give us a convinced kind of substantiation about the planet,and the levels through which we create sense of the humankind, groupsthat we cultured when we learned the language, tells us what thecontribution of our wits means.

Theactuality that a disparity exists between perceptions and themeanings we offer to them gives the rise to a sensation of doubt orskepticism explicitly built into the very system by which mindsappear to recognize objects.

Tobe exact, to the degree that realization can grasp categories ofthinking, it is at the same time of being aware of the insufficiencyof these levels and thus stimulated to find fresh ground for commonsense certainty, coming up with new concepts that smoothes over thecontradictions. This go-getting is constantly aggravated, thegroupings of thought divulge their interior contradictions, andawareness is moved to hypothesize more sufficient categories.

Thoughsense certainty is always indefinable, this route of moving from alesser agreeable to more satisfactory class entails a kind learningcourse of action. Hegel terms this process as understanding,the third and chief mode of consciousness.

Hegelin his book is right about the idea that conflict arises within andindividual. I support the idea because of various reasons. Thesereasons include:

  • Slow process of understanding

Aconflict within someone’s mind may arise due to overloading themind with very many ideas without comprehending them. This normallyhappens to individuals who are known to be slow in understandingthings. Such people are supposed to be made aware of various issuesbit by bit. This means that they are supposed to be taught everythingwith regards to the pace they get to understand them. When they havenot comprehended the first idea, it is best for them to be given timefor the purpose of letting it sink into the head. After it has beenfully comprehended is when the other idea should be brought into thepicture.

  • Comprehending one thing at a time

Thehuman mind is set in a way that it is supposed to comprehend onething at a time. In this case, it should be given time to comprehendone before another one is fed into it. This is because when severalfeeds are placed into the mind at a time the individual involvedtends to be confused, In this case, the confusion developed willautomatically lead to a conflict within the individual. This gives aclear impression that the mind of a human being is not supposed to befed with many details at a time. The mind of a human being is notmade in such a manner. It should be fed with details in a sequentialmanner. Everything to be comprehended should come at its own time andevery detail should be understood before the next is fed into it.This will help in making certain that the pars of the bran workexactly as they are supposed to.

  • The disadvantage of forgetting

Thereare individuals who have the tendency of forgetting. This does notactually happen to every individual. In this case, it should be madesure that every person is trained to keep details in their mind. Thismeans that the issue of forgetting can be done away with. Thisrequires the efforts of both individuals involved, but individual whohas the issue of forgetting and the one who is assisting. The onewith the issue ought to be ready and willing to learn for the purposeof achieving the best. The assistant on the other hand, is supposedto be ready and patient with the learner. If the both of them arewilling, then it is possible to reduce the number of people who areknown to have the tendency of forgetting things. This will help inmaking sure that there are more people who keep things in mind. Thiswill help a great deal when it comes to sensitive issues in thesociety.

  • Negative attitude

Thereare people who usually have negative attitudes. This means that whenthey are provided with information on sensitive issues, they arelikely to react in a negative manner. This is yet another aspectwhich may bring about the issue of conflict within an individual.This is yet another issue which should be taken into considerationand treated with a lot of care. Having many individuals with negativeattitudes towards various things might result in negative impacts tothe society at large. For further and more negative impacts to beavoided, such individuals are supposed to be handles in a way whichdoes not annoy them. It is clear that the thing which makes themdevelop this attitude most of the time is how they are treated. Inthis case, if they are treated wrong they tend to develop theattitude. If they are treated just right on the other hand, they tendto stay calm and do everything as expected. For everything to go justright as planned and every set goal achieved, such people aresupposed to be handled as they expect.

  • Overworking the mind

Ifthe mind overworked, there is a tendency of a conflict developingwithin the mind of an individual. This is basically because of theconfusion that develops. Confusion basically leads to a conflictwithin the mind because the individual involved tends to think aboutmany things hence making it hard to adjust to the situation they arein. in this case, it is hard for them to think straight and performtheir duties effectively. This has negative impact to the society atlarge because of the lack of attention.


Inconclusion, conflicts usually happen when it comes to comprehensionwithin the human mind. This is majorly because the human mind is setto think about certain things at a time. This gives a clearimpression that the mind of a human being is supposed to be giventime for the purpose of achieving the best of comprehension. Whenvery many things are loaded to the mind, there are individuals whohave the tendency of forgetting and this makes it hard to know whateverything loaded to it is all about.

Inthis case, it is necessary to understand how the human mind works andknow how to handle things. This will help in making certain that somethings such as going mad and other issues related to the human mindare avoided. Issues such as madness are at times is caused byoverworking the brain or such. In this case the human mind has to behandled with care. Individuals who are known to react negatively tosome things are supposed to be taken into consideration for thepurpose of avoiding further negative impact. This gives a clearimpression that when it comes to sensitive issues, they should bemade aware in a certain way that will not have a negative impact onthem.

Theother group of people which ought to be taken into consideration isthat of those who slow learners are. These are those people who aresupposed to be given details bit by bit. This is because if they aretaught faster than they can learn, they tend to forget close toeverything they have learnt. In this case, it is best to learn everyindividual and know to what group they fall. Having this knowledgehelps to make certain that every individual is treated in relation tothe group they fall into, it is also best to understand everybodybecause it comes to a time when people come across various types ofindividuals, those with different attitudes, behaviours as well asother dissimilar social characters. Having knowledge about differenttypes of people, makes it simple to handle everyone without causingchaos and bringing up unnecessary social issues. Generally, everyindividual ought to learn about the other to make sure that everylittle social issue that might come up because of ignorance isavoided. This will in turn help to make certain that every individualleaves with the other in a respectable and expected manner. Theeffect of this will be formation of a peaceful as well as a friendlysociety. This will benefit both to every individual and to thesociety at large. It is beneficial to the society since it helps tobuild a healthy and friendly one. To every individual on the otherhand, it is beneficial it is beneficial since it helps to make surethat certain issues such as the number of people who