A Passage To India.
“Mrs.Moore felt increasingly (vision or nightmare?) that, though peopleare important, the relations between them are not, and that inparticular too much fuss has been made over marriage.” Thisquotation is in chapter fourteen. Shows Mrs Moore`s upcoming troubleswith the echoes in the cave. she been to the burial of Dr. Aziz, shewould have defended Aziz because she knew, due to the echo, that hewas innocent. She would have told Adela to listen to her innermostperson carefully and realize that Aziz didn`t assault her in any way.Being a woman of Noble character, Mrs. Moore would have said thatAziz was not guilty and her testimony would have prevented Aziz frombeing arrested thus putting a stop to the hatred between Adela andAziz.
Anecho is a sound caused by the reflection of sound waves from asurface back to the person listening it. It is a figurative stilethat Forster has used so much in his novel `A passage to India`.“Life went on as usual, but had no consequences, that is to say,sounds did not echo or thoughts develop.” (Page 155). This quotevividly explains the term echo. It looks like the echo in this phrasestands for misery and detain of Aziz in the future. Another characterthat shows echo is Mrs. Moore. “…didn`t know who touched her,couldn`t breath, and some vile naked thing her face and settled onher mouth… For a moment, she went mad, hitting and gasping like afanatic… there was also a terrifying echo.” (page 162). Theseechoes made Mrs. Moore so uncomfortable and she feels like she ishaunted in the cave. Being a strong Christian, Mrs. Moore understands the echoes as renunciation. She can only experiencedenial as nothing because according to Godbole`s philosophy absenceand presence are the same thing. She feels guilty for not supportingAziz during the trial even though she knew he was so guilty. The echoeventually gets to Mrs. Moore good conduct and leads her to death. Adela on the other hand, doesn`t have the same perspective of echo asMrs. Moore, but she is also hallucinated by the continuous echo inthe caves. She feels that the echo bewilders moral differences. ToAdela, these echoes are interpreted as her being responsible for thedetention of Aziz.
E.M. Forster not only portions his novel `A passage to India` tovarious chapters, but he also divides it in three significant parts.These parts are mosques, caves and Temples. These three parts havetheir own symbolism and significance. They also have a great role tothe novel`s thematic unity. The three parts also are arranged in asequence of three different seasons in India. The Temple part occursin the season of rains, Mosque takes place during winter whereas Cavetakes place in summer.
Forsterdescribes mosques in the beginning of the novel, the first chapter.Mosque is the first part of the novel. Forster starts the novel witha brief outline of Chandarapore. Chandarapore is a city that is notso known apart from the Marabar caves that are near it. Forsterdescribes this city as a city of little good shelters from the timesof Upper India. He says, “forest sparsely scattered with huts”."On the second rise is laid out the little civil station, andviewed hence Chandrapore appears to be a totally different place. Itis a city of gardens. It is no city, but a forest sparsely scatteredwith huts. It is a tropical pleasaunce washed by a nobleriver."(Chapter 1, page 2)
Thesecond chapter talks about various characters. We start by seeingAziz arriving at Hamidulla`s residence on the bicycle. Aziz findsHamidulla and Mr. Mahmoud smoking hookah while debating on if Indianscan be friends with Englishmen. Mrs, Callendar and Mrs. Lesley, whoare English ladies arrives and takes Aziz`s tonga. They thought thatAziz`s ride was actually theirs too. It is then that Aziz goes to themosque which has slabs that are so broken. Despite this state, Azizhas a strong admiration for Islam. Mrs. Moore, who is an elderlyEnglishwoman arrives at the mosque. Aziz scolds Mrs. Moore tellingher that she was not supposed to be in the mosque with her shoes on.Mrs. Moore tells Aziz that she forgot to remove her shoes. He sayssorry to her. Forster has shown a number of themes in this chapter.These themes will occupy a good space in A passage to India. Theconspicuous theme among others is the great variation in the Englishcolonial people and the native people of India. In the novel, Forsterdescribes English people as so disrespectful towards Indians. This isseen when Mrs. Callendar takes Dr. Aziz`s carriage as well as herreprimanding Aziz. This provides a contrast to future happenings ofthe novel whereby Aziz becomes rude and decides to dwell on hisdignity and rights. This creates a greater themes of colonialism thatis penetrated in the novel.
Contraryto the mosque, in the cave, this part of the book shows the top andmost controversial section. Chapter twelve of the book talks just onthe Marabar caves. Every cave here has a tunnel of around eight feetin length, it`s about five feet tall and the width is about threefeet. In case any character experienced any of the caves, it showsthat he or he had seen all of the caves. In chapter twelve, fosteroutlines the Marabal caves a pivot point of abnormality. The visitorswho visits the caves are not able to experience their importance, ordone seem to see any interesting feeling or experience. The theme ofdifficulty in interpreting the caves` significance is portrayed here.Forster shows the events that will happen in the future that will bealmost hard to know. There is satire as well here since mostcharacters are somehow fascinated by the caves and they think Cavesare the most beautiful sites in Chandrapore, however, the writerexplains these sites as maybe not fascinating at all and boring. Thisis irony! Cave takes place in the summer when the whether is so hot.Characters of the novel seem to be at the climax of their emotionsjust like the weather in cave part. Their feelings are stirred andeveryone seems to be irrational in their thinking and behaviour. Forinstance, Mrs. Moore`s life is at a threat due to her feeling ofmeaninglessness in the cave. The whole community seems to be jumbledup because there is a lot of riots and lack of rest during thetrial.
In chapter four of the novel, Forster talks about the temple. Lastly,there is the temple part which tries to dust away the dust of theCave section. The temple part happens during rainy whether so itsymbolizes that it will wash away all the riots brought in during theCave section. Temples are used by Hindus. This chapter is meant tocherish the Hindu Principle of togetherness of everything at theGokul Ashtami festival with Godbole. This section symbolizesreconciliation however hard, for Aziz and Fielding. The discussionabout religion by the missionaries is a reminder of the high levelsthat
take a huge part in A Passage to India. The significance of theselevels is to look down on others to
raise the elite when such an elite system of inclusion and exclusionoccurs, the
ability to set who can be and who can not be included is the solelypower that these elites actually have. Their conversation has aconspicuous comparison in British India. The British describe their
power by their way to take over the Indians and exclude them fromcertain privileges, may it from a social or political point of view.
Moststylistic traits that Forster used in his novel are irony andsymbolism. For instance, the writer uses cave, temple and mosque tosymbolize various seasons and emotions of people. The Temple partoccurs in the season of rains, Mosque takes place during winterwhereas Cave takes place in summer. The mosque symbolizes friendshipand calmness, Cave symbolizes riots and unrest during the trial andfinally temple symbolizes togetherness and unity. The effectivenessof the temple is try and bring back together people after chaoticexperiences. The effectiveness of the mosque is for tranquility andfondness among people. There is also another example of the sky. Thissymbol appears in almost every chapter of the novel. Theeffectiveness of the sky is to symbolize vastness. Though this symbolhas been seen as sense of the inclusive stretch of either implausibleinclusiveness of India or British regal command by some readers. Theeffectiveness of the sky is comprehensiveness and inclusiveness. Thenovelist starts his writing with the word `nothing` in the firstsentence. There are so many gaps and holes in the novel. The novel ispractically organized in the donut, with a huge hole in which Adela`sadventure in the cave ought to be. Nevertheless, even if nothing isan attack of Adela`s adventure inside the cave, it does not implythat nothing went on or nothing can be said. The thing is the bookdoesn`t really explain what happened to Adela in the cave, nothing!This symbolizes abnormality, which is among others, the concealed andwithout doubt, fascinating themes in the novel.
Ironyis another trait of style that the novelist has used a lot. Forster`santic irony is so vivid in the novel. He mocks the Anglo-Indian,English and Indians connection. McDowell affirms this when he says“Forster, in his description (of character) is the wittysatirist…”. Forster adduces most English bureaucrats in anironical way. For instance, the Turtons are presented as bossy peoplein an absolute manner. The conspicuous one to be introduced as soarrogant is Mrs. Turton. Other bureaucrats that did not escapeForster`s mockery are Burton, McBryde as well as Major Callendar. These English bureaucrats refers to Indians as inferior and debasedpeople, their ring leader being Mrs. Turton. Nevertheless, Forsterhas not spared Indians in His satirizing norm. to start with, Aziz ispicked by the novelist to stand for and symbolize Islamic. Muslimreligion is described in a corrupt condition that is commemoratedjust via Aziz`s extravagant poems. He even agrees that it is almostimpossible for him to keep his faith, which is so ironical. Aziz, atthe same time looks like he is continually not happy for Hindus dueto the deterioration of Islam. In Hinduism, there is also irony seenin the hatred between the people of lower social class and Brahimns. The effectiveness of this irony is the the two groups, Indians andEnglish are not anywhere ready for closeness in any way. At the endof the novel, Forster finishes with a ray of hope that maybefriendship between these two cultures is possible. This is seen whenFielding and Aziz are together horse riding and they promise to befriends forever. But this is as well doomed because Aziz`s course andFielding`s narrows down. But we all know, ways can easily broadened.“But the horses didn`t want it-they swerved apart the earth didn`twant it, sending up rocks through which riders must pass single filethe temples, the tank, the jail, the palace, the birds, the carrion,the Guest House, that came into view as they issued from the gap andsaw Mau beneath: they didn`t want it, they said in their hundredvoices, `No, not yet,` and the sky said, `No, not there.” (Chapter37, page 367)
Forster,E. M. A passage to india, part one chapters 1-5, Mosque (page1-9)
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part onechapters 6-11, Aziz`s and Fielding`s bibliography.
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part onechapters 10, Indian Atmosphere.
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part onechapters 11, possibility of friendship.
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part twochapters 12-22, caves.
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part twochapter 14, echo.
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, part twochapters 23-32, Ambiquity
Forster,E. M. A passage to India, Part twochapters 33-37, Intimate Friendship