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Summary of articles on social and economic settings

of articles on social and economic settings

Thenext president of Egypt must contend with frustrated employees, whohave treated the new wave of countrywide strikes, in case theirrequests are not fulfilled. His supporters hail Abdel Fattah al-Sisi,an ex-army official who overthrew Mohamed Morsi, an Islamistpresident last July as a tough leader with ability to restorestability in case he wins the next election. However, he is likely toconfront forceful demands from same labor leaders, who wereresponsible for organizing enormous 2008 strike, which was viewed asa precursor to 2011 uprising that brought down three-decade rule ofHosni Mubarak.

Withthe collapse of investment and tourism sectors after three years ofhavoc, it is unclear whether a government will manage to theirrequests. Kamal Fayouni, a labor activist, complain that he strugglesvery hard to make the end meet even after working at textile factoryfor about 30 years. Kamal and other labor leaders insist that thepromises of 2011 uprising such as “bread, social justice, andfreedom” are yet to be fulfilled. He also complained that allgovernment including that of Morsi have only made promises withdelivering them. Since Mubarak’s overthrow in year 2011, employeeshave staged continuous strikes all over the country, although theyended them on February under temporary cease-fire withmilitary-installed authorities.

MahmoudKhaled. Defiant Egypt workers pose challenge to next president.Egypt’s Daily Independent Newspaper in English. April 24, 2014.

Abold decision by Ethiopia to pay for the huge dam has overturnedEgyptian control over River Nile’s waters for many generations, andthis decision may assist in transforming one of world poorest nationto a regional hydropower hub. Addis Ababa has managed to controlconstruction of Renaissance Dam on the Nile tributary throughspurning an offer from Egypt to finance the project. However, thedecision to finance this great project carries a risk of stuffyprivate sector investment as well as restricting economic growth.

Thismay jeopardize Ethiopia’s hope of becoming middle-income nation byyear 2025. Currently, the dam is quarterly built and Ethiopiagovernment expects the dam to produce its initial 750 megawatts ofelectricity before the end of 2014. In filthy floor of Guba valley,next to Sudanese border, the engineers have laid a compacted concreteto foundations of barrage, which will about 145 metres high, while itturbines will throw out about 6,000 megawatts. Ethiopian governmenthas paid 27 billion up to now out of the entirely projected cost ofabout 77 billion for dam construction. This project is one of themassive programs of the public spending on roads, power, and railwaysamong the Africa’s fastest growing economies.

AaronMaasho. Paying for giant Nile Dam itself, Ethiopia thwarts Egypt buttakes risks. Egypt’s Daily Independent Newspaper in English. April23, 2014.

OnApril 16, 2014, Russia’s Baikonur spaceport launched new Egyptiantelecommunication satellite from Kazakhstan. This is the secondEgyptian satellite to get into the service. A Russian News Agencyreported that the satellite is equipped with innovative technologies,which are used to view “visible-range as well as infraredphotographs.” Data collected by satellite will be utilized inecological, agriculture, and geographical research. Russian newsagency mentioned an unspecified source from Russian space, and saidthat the satellite is expected to separate from the rocket at 8.28pm. Hossam Al-Qaweish, the Egyptian cabinet spokesman, said that thisnew satellite is expected to serve agricultural, industrial, mineral,environmental, and planning fields. Qaweish added that this satellitewould far help in supporting development of projects in Arab region.According to Russian agency, initial Egyptian satellite was launchedat same Russian spaceport in year 2007. Nevertheless, the contractwas misplaced in year 2011. The agency added that specialists fromEgypt stated that the initial satellite was just an experimentalproject with life service of only five years.

SaraAggour. New Egyptian satellite launched into orbit over Kazakhstan.Egypt’s Daily Independent Newspaper in English. April 16, 2014.

InUtrecht Netherlands, a student organization called Utrecht UniversityModel United Nations, organized a ‘Race to Cooperation’ on fifthand 6th April, which is an annual event for students in last year oftheir high school education. The aim of “Race to Cooperation” isto give time to young students to address international conflicts. Inthis year, about 70 students aged between 17 years and 18 yearsparticipated in several presentations and debates focused on gettingsolutions for a stable Egypt, under banner “Egypt road todemocracy.”

Conceptof this event consisted of two parts. On April 5, 2014, Dutchjournalists Willem Vander Put, Bram Jansem, and Rena Netjes gaveworkshops on topics of Egypt, South Sudan, and Afghanistan. On April6, 2014, several students participated in replication of UnitedNations. The students wrote articles in groups that presented viewsof Dutch students, and they shared thoughts on the best solutionstowards better stable Egypt. Many students argued that Netherlandshas good economic, cultural and political relationship with Egypt.For example, Netherlands supported Egypt with knowledge and fundsafter Mubarak was overthrown in 2011. The support was directed toprojects dealing with democracy, human rights, as well as transitionto a constitutional state. Dutch government encouraged Dutchorganizations to invest in Egypt through providing subsidies. Bydoing, so Dutch government contributed to economic growth andenhanced chances of more jobs in Egypt.

RenaNetjes. Dutch youth debate Egypt issues, path to democracy. Egypt’sDaily Independent Newspaper in English. April 22, 2014.

ShamEl Neseem festive is near and many Egyptians are expected to visitcoastal cities forsake of having fun on the sun. All close beachdestinations such as Alexandria, Ain Sokhna, Ras Sidr, as well asNorth Coast will be crowded with people ready to get releasedeveryday life pleasure and splash in the sea. However, those who donot enjoy crowded beaches, due to smell of the sweat mixed withscreaming babies and iodine, then they will most likely spend theirtime in cities. During Sham El Neseem people are likely to enjoycolored eggs that are traditionally associated with Sham El Neseem.

Borrowingactivity from closely related Easter holiday, a hunt of an egg mayprovide much entertainment. In case people are stuck with friends orfamily in the city, they might consider visiting parks and settingscene. People are recommended to visit parks earlier to avoid beingtrapped in crowds that are expected to visit parks to enjoy pickledherrings and beseech in the great outdoors. For people in a mood ofhaving something little fancier, they should buy few chocolate eggsfrom local bakeries available in the city, and use them instead ofordinary colored eggs. Most of hotels in a city provide specialactivities on Sham El Neseem day as well as special rate options forEgyptian holiday.

ThoraiaAbou Bakr. An alternative Sham El Neseem. Egypt’s Daily IndependentNewspaper in English. April 17, 2014.

OnApril 19, 2014, Cario Jazz Club hosted Jowan Safadi, a Palestinianartist together with Fish Samak to entertain an enthusiastic thoughsmall crowd due to an exodus of several Caireness out of a city dueto Easter holiday. During the event at Cairo Jazz Club, a ladyangrily exclaimed “excuse me what is the message from Palestine?”and in respond Safadi shouted “I am a human before I am aPalestinian.” Being an artist from Palestine, many people view itas being unfair. After the event, Safadi used Facebook page to make acomment that Palestinian artist need not to be a voice of Palestiniancause in order to gain acceptance of the Arab audiences.

Safadiwas later arrested in Jordan and charge for insulting religionthrough his song “Ya Haram Ya Koffar,&quot however, he claimedthat he will not shy away from directly confront politics. Thesecontroversies normally overshadow Safadi’s music and his bandsafadi’s music often contain commentary on social and politicalrealities in Arab world and Palestine, though his music is energeticand entertaining and usually draw influence from most musical genres.His music includes The Doors, The Beatles, Palestinian Folklore,Sheikh Imam, Pixies, Pink Floyd, and Black Sabbath as Safadi claims.

OmarEl Adl. Jowan Safadi and Fish Samak make Egyptian debut at the CairoJazz Club. Egypt’s Daily Independent Newspaper in English. April23, 2014.

Allthese articles were retrieved fromhttp://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2013/01/15/has-the-united-states-succeeded-in-running-and-managing-the-world/#sthash.JWttkWZ4.dpuf

Culturediversity in Egypt

Egypt’sculture has many years of the historical record. Ancient Egypt wasamong the early nations that experienced early civilizations. Formany years, Egypt has maintained extraordinarily stable and complexculture, which influenced Europe cultures, Middle East, as well asAfrica. After Pharaonic era, Egypt came under influence of Hellenismculture, then Christianity, and later Islamic culture. Egyptianlanguage that formed different branch among the families of theAfro-Asiatic languages was the first written languages. The Copticlanguage used in the last stage of Egyptian civilization is currentlythe liturgical language of Coptic Orthodox church. Arabic languagecame to Egypt in the seventh century, and at present Egyptian Arabichas become modern speech of Egypt. Out of many varieties of Arabiclanguages, Egyptian Arabic is most widely spoken dialect because ofinfluence from Egyptian media and cinema throughout Arabic-speakingworld. In lower Nile Valley, near Aswan and Kom Ombo, there areapproximately 300,000 speakers of the Nubian languages, mostly Nubianand Kenuzi-Dongola. Siwi represents Berber language that is spoken byapproximately 5,000 speakers in Siwa Oasis. Over one million speakersof Domari language live in north of Cairo while about 60,000 Greekspeakers live in Alexandria (Gundling and Anita 67).

AncientEgyptian literature may be dated back to Old Kingdom, in the thirdmillennium the religious literature was best known for its mortuarytexts and hymns. Pyramid texts were oldest Egyptian literature themythology as well as rituals was carved near tombs of rulers. AncientEgypt secular literature included ‘wisdom texts’ and forms of thephilosophical education. For instance, instruction of ptahhotep wascollation of ethical proverbs by an Egto that seem to have come fromelite administrative class. After sometimes, pyramid texts became theCoffin texts and finally mortuary literature. Middle kingdom was agolden age of the Egyptian literature. Some remarkable texts includeTale of Neferty, Tale of Sinuhe, Instructions of Amenemhat I, storyof Eloquent Peasant and Story of Shipwrecked Sailor. In a newkingdom, instructions became famous literary genre, taking form ofadvice on ethical behavior. Instruction of Any and Story of Wenamunwas famous examples from this period (Gundling and Anita 70).

Theculture of Egypt is very diverse with substantial ethnic mixturesfrom its past, which Egyptians often look after and understands theirpresent situation as well as future. In Egyptian families set up menare prominent than women and they are responsible for majordecisions. Nevertheless, women have some impacts on some householddecisions. Men in Egypt have responsibility of teaching young boyshow to trade and how to handle society issues. Men have more genderroles in Egypt in comparison with women gender roles a man can gethealth as well as nutrition care, but a woman can be deprived. InEgypt, most women are responsible for raising children, as well asmeeting daily needs of their families. In Ancient Egypt, peoplebelieved that make-ups had power to heal diseases. Elderly peoplewere allowed to wear make-ups such as “Kohl,&quot which symbolizedblack powder. They were also allowed to put based mix on upper, aswell as lower eyelids, to bring back poor eyesight. Women wererequired to wear beaded fitting dresses, while lords wore kilt withprolonged robe over them. Currently, globalization has influenceclothing in Egypt. After European influential ruled on Egyptian, manyelites started wearing European clothing. Islamic countries, Rome,Turkey, Greece, Great Britain, as well as set African cultures havecaused a hybrid of cultural styles and how people wear in Egyptcurrently (Gundling and Anita 71).


Globalizationis a process through which markets integrate internationally. For along period, globalization has accelerated steadily becausemanagement expertise and new technologies have reduced transactionand transportation costs, since man made barriers and tariffs tointernational trade were lowered. Many developing nations haveexperienced constant growth rates of about 10 percent. Most of thesedeveloping nations including Egypt grew by over 7 percent growth ratefor many years. In the last one decade, the globalization effects onthe distribution of jobs and wealth have declined. On average, thedeveloped economies were increasing at respectable rate of about 2.5percent. In most of these advanced economies, breadth as well asvariety of the employment opportunities in different levels ofeducation have reduced. Imported goods became cheaper as the emergingmarkets involved with a global economy benefiting many consumers indeveloping and developed nations (Marková 45).

Inthe future, as developing nations like Egypt become richer andlarger, their economic structures will change in response to forcesof the comparative advantage thus, the value-added chain will likelymove up. Currently, developing nations have increasingly producedhigh-value-added components, which for last thirty years has been theexclusive purview of the developed economies. Structural economicgrowth in developing nations will only have a greater impact in theinternational market in the future. Through relocation of somesections of global supply chains, globalization will affect prices ofgoods, wages, and job patterns almost in every nation. This willchange the structure of nation’s economies in a manner that willaffect different groups of people in those nations. Multinationalcompanies have been accused of underpaying and exploiting poor peoplein the developing nations. However, multinational companies have highpotential to play a central role in the management of evolution ofthe global economy (Marková 47).

Manypeople define globalization as, “making an issue internationally inparticular function.” The incredible change of society, culture,and country inherits both negative and positive aspects. Change isnot very visible in developed nations in comparison with developingnations. Egypt is a developing nation, therefore, many nations acrossthe world influence it culture. Various elements like society andeconomy should be considered when determining whether globalizationhas negative or positive impact on Egyptian culture. The spread ofglobalization concept in Egypt as well as international new economicprogressions have caused an alteration in the way bank systems areutilized currently. Positive viewpoint on this developing matter isthat new systems attempt to adapt to fit international picture of theway banks should function and what their roles must contain.Globalization has enhanced the way businesses should operate, as wellas how large companies should take in and execute flow of money. Inaddition, bank systems are corrupt and different citizens currentlydo not understand new systems. The main reasons behind this confusionare social classes’ gaps, lack of knowledge, and inability toaccept new development. Banks are perceived negatively because ofthese reasons, and that why many citizens mostly from the lower classstay away from bank system. Egyptian society has been shaken by issueof whether to admit or not to admit that their traditional socialvalues are starting to adjust because of the uprising, as well asspread of globalization. Due to distribution of the diverse cultures,many Egyptians find it hard to remain intact with their socialprinciples (Marková 48).


Gundling,Ernest, and Anita Zanchettin. GlobalDiversity: Winning Customers and Engaging Employees within WorldMarkets.Boston: Nicholas Brealey International, 2007. Internet resource.

Marková,M. R. Impactof globalization on organizational culture, behavior and genderroles.Charlotte: Information Age Pub, 2012. Print.