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Using the Integrated Middleware Solutions to enhance performance

25

ofinefficient Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).

Keywords:

  1. Middleware Solutions

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

  3. Performance of WSNs

  4. Inefficient WSNs

ResearchQuestion and Context

Theadvent of low cost and easily deployable sensor nodes has increasedthe applications of WSNs in many areas. Wireless Sensor Networks areused in agriculture, transportation, medicine and military(Stankovic, Wood and He 2008, p. 6). Additionally, WSNs has enabledmonitoring of the global environment, home and cities’environments. However, WSNs remain vulnerable to many challenges thatreduce their performance during application. These challenges areentitled to the heterogeneity, privacy, security, limited power,control and actuation of WSNs (Stankovic, Wood and He 2008, p. 7).Traditionally, many sensor network systems were enclosed in cars,ships and airplanes. However, the modern WSNs transmit informationfrom the enclosed systems in cars, ships and planes to other systemsin the cloud. In other words, the WSN systems have become too opensince people can share information when operating in differentsystems. Security and privacy issues have been raised due toincreased exchange of information across the diverse WSN systems(Stankovic, Wood and He 2008, p. 8).

WSNsremains vulnerable to attacks and malicious intrusions since thesensor nodes are deployed in harsh environments. Hackers and othercyber criminals can also send viruses to the wireless system thusimpairing their performance. Also, the sensor nodes have limitedpower sources, which increase the risk of failure of the systems.

GlobalAim

CreatingWSN middleware that provides solutions to the challenges encounteredwhile using the WSN systems.

  • Assess: Do research on the uses of WSN systems in military applications, home security, monitoring environment and diagnosis of machine failure. During the study, researchers should identify and record the challenges encountered in the specific fields. Assessment involves determining the quality of service through analyzing the problems in the WSN systems. Challenges of WSN systems could be due to the use of low-powered sensor nodes, cyber attacks or technical failures.

  • Relate: Conduct a direct comparison of the methods used by the institutions in solving the problems with the anticipated solutions for the same problems. Assess the performance of the software programs used before with the current programs.

  • Improve: After the identification of the challenges encountered while applying the WSNs, develop integrated software program that would enhance the performance of WSN systems during its applications. The middleware is a software program, which is capable of combining the hardware, network stacks, operating systems and the applications of the WSNs. The middleware solution should create an environment, which supports and manages the multiple WSNs applications. It should also create a standardized system that increases efficiency in data fusion and aggregation adaptable to the applications. In order to prolong the lifetime of the sensor networks, the middleware should create a mechanism that allows the sensor nodes adapt to environmental changes.

  • Prioritize: During the analysis of the quality of service of WSN systems, rank the scores of the common challenges encountered in the applications. Prioritize middleware projects, which would counteract with the challenges encountered by the lowest performing WSN system.

  • Reassess: It involves assessing the performance of WSN systems in order to identify any new challenges. Also, ensuring the middleware solutions are consistent in increasing the performance of the WSN systems.

  • Reassess: It involves assessing the performance of WSN systems in order to identify any new challenges. Also, ensuring the middleware solutions are consistent in increasing the performance of the WSN systems.

  • It is also important for assessing whether the software programs are easily installable and workable in the institutions (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 8).

Evidenceof Requirement

Theproblem of inefficient WSNs has been witnessed in the militarysector, industries, as well as, during the monitoring of theenvironment.

Inan article published by the New York Times in 2012, an editoranalyzes how failure of the WSN systems have been a challenge to manymilitary sectors in ensuring battlefield surveillance, as well as,enemy tracking. As he states, the major contributions to WSN failureemanate from the deployment of inefficient devices in extremely harshenvironments. The sensor nodes deployed in these environments arenever supervised by human beings and therefore, remain vulnerable todestruction by some environmental conditions, such as heavy rains andstrong winds. Also, some daring enemies misplace and destroy thedevices in those environments. He explains how painful it would bewhen governments have invested so much money in maintaining security,and at the end of it all enemies continue intruding their countries.

Theopenness in information exchange across the WSN systems reduces theprivacy of information. As a result, some enemies being track down bythe military forces disrupts the networks for their benefits. Therehave been improvements in the battlefield surveillance, but, thewriter calls for more improvements on the same. Software developersshould develop systems, which ensure the efficiency of WSN networksin terms of energy management, transmission of information andquality of service (ICT Innovations, Davcev and Gomez 2010, p. 47).

Lately,industries have admitted that there is the need for furtherimprovements of the WSN networks. Sometimes, the information sentfrom the car and aeroplane engines is unreliable for diagnosis. Manysignals are received in the industries making it hard for properdiagnosis of engines’ functionality due to homogeneity. There isneed to improve the current techniques and tools to account for theopenness in the WSN systems. Openness in exchange of informationshould ensure there is a balance between the messages received andsecurity. When accidents occur, the investigations rely on thedetermination of the functionality of the aeroplane and cars’engines. Therefore, if the information sent is incorrect, wrongconclusions can be drawn on the causes of the accident.

Themeteorological stations have raised concerns on the effectiveness ofthe wireless sensor networks (WSNs) systems in providing data. Sincethe sensor nodes are deployed in harsh environments, they can beinterfered by moving obstacles. As a result, they disintegrate andfail to transmit information to the base stations. Therefore, themeteorological departments and geographers call for improvement ofthe WSN system through deployment of highly efficient sensor nodes.

Additionally,people have raised concerns about the failure of the WSN systems athome, as well as, during traffic control. Some people claim that theWSN systems are consuming large amounts and the lifespan of systemshas become short. In the traffic controls, the WSNs system delays inresponding and, therefore, appropriate measures should be put inplace in order to ensure the effectiveness of the systems at work. Inthis case, therefore, the idea of developing the middleware solutionsis viable and very important in ensuring high quality of servicedelivered by the WSN systems (ICT Innovations, Davcev and Gomez 2010,p. 50).

GeneralContext

Theproject is directly related to computer science as it will bedeveloped based on the descriptions of sensor networks, softwareprograms and the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs).Knowledge about the uses of WSNs in the military sector, industriesand at home is also helpful. Enhancing the performance on WSNs isbased on the key principles in computer science such as energyefficiency and scalability (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 10). Theclustering technique widely discussed in computer science isimportant in improving the performance of the WSN in applications.The project can be sponsored by companies such as Ofcom (UK), WSNGlobal Services (US), Siemens (Germany), and Mitsubishi in Japan canfinance the project for the betterment of their service delivery. TheUK security sector can also sponsor the implementation of the projectin case it qualifies to fully improve the WSN system.

ProposedResearch Methods

Searchinginformation from the internet is very important as one will get thelatest information about the wireless sensor networks. One can useGoogle. Also, reading books, journals and other articles concerningcomputer science and wireless sensor networks would be important.Conducting email interviews with the managers of the WSN companysectors. The interview would involve sending questionnaires, wherethe managers would fill their data and details for their operatingWSN systems. Then, those companies would explain whether they havesoftware programs already existing in coordinating the operationsinvolving the WSNs systems (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 11).Information could also be obtained through engagement in groupdiscussions with my fellow students. During the research, using thelecture notes is very important since it shows that the project isbased on computer science.

ProductDescription

Unlikethe traditional sensor based systems, the software programs developedfocuses on the performance of the WSN system rather than the style ofcommunication. Note that the middleware solutions are based on theprogramming models. Programming the sensor networks involves the socalled programming support. The programming support provides systems,code distribution and other services. Under the class of programmingsupport, the main subclasses include virtual machines and modularprogrammers (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 12).

VirtualMachine

Thevirtual machine contains interpreters, mobile agents and multiplevirtual machines (VMs). The virtual machine allows generation ofsmall modules that are sent throughout the WSN system. In this way,energy consumption is minimized. Then, the VM interprets thosemodules (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 13).

AnotherWSN middleware is the Matewhich minimizes the constraints associated with the energyconsumption in during the network activities. Mateenhancesthe reprogramming through uploading of complete updates other thannumerous bits of data. A Magnetisanother middleware that uses the virtual machine. The magnet operateswithin a system known as the MagnetOS. The MagnetOS operating systemis designed to manage the sensor and unplanned networks. The systemensures the heterogeneity of the numerous ad hoc networks. Thisenables production of clear and single images in the computers of theend user at the base station (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 15).

Modularprogrammers

Themodular programmers are also referred to as mobile agents which aidin transmitting the signals from the domains to the base station.Usually, small modules are transmitted because they consume lessenergy as compared to whole applications. Middleware such as Impalaare installed in order to provide mechanisms, which allows networkself-organization, as well as, increasing efficiency (Hadim andMohamed 2006, p. 17).

Clusteringtechnique

Themiddleware solutions also need to be supplemented through the use ofclusters. In the WSNs, there are numerous sensor nodes deployed invast environments. In large scale WSNs, there is a need to improvedata gathering and reduce energy consumption. As a result, clusteringmethod ought to be applied in order to sustain the overallperformance of the WSNs. Clustering ensures prolonged life of theWSNs in offering service, as well as, enhancing scalability.Scalability refers to the flexibility of the WSN system toaccommodate growth and changes that might arise. Energy efficiencyis achieved due to aggregation and fusion of data before it is sentto the end user (Akylidiz and Vuran 2010, p. 128).

Themiddleware solutions include MagnetOS operating system, Magnet,Impala andMate.The combination of the middleware and operating system are thenprogrammed to form a single software program. The software programwould then be installed following the most procedures outlined in theusers’ manuals. The installation should be done by experiencedsoftware programmers. In marketing the software program, one shouldprepare some fliers, which describe the product and its importance ingeneral. When describing the new software the most important thinginclude advice the customers to only install the software program inPC or MAC computers. Also, they should be aware that the softwareprogram is also vulnerable to hackers’ viruses and, therefore, theyshould not do way with anti-viruses in their computers. One shouldoffer discounts to the first group of people who decide to installthe program. The installation would be free installation andguarantee (Garcia-Henardo 2008, p. 132).

Deliverables

Theproject was developed from other ideas put across by researchers, whonever devised a prime software program that would encompass all thechallenges in WSNs systems. After identification of the increased useof sensor nodes in many fields, I was compelled to devise a programthat would solve the problems facing the WSNs systems. The programwas to ensure higher performance of the systems as compared to theprevious solutions. With the support of the sensor network’sknowledge, the facts discussed in other projects was easy tointerpret and improve (Akylidiz and Vuran 2010, p. 130).

Duringthe development of the program, critical analysis of the previousprojects was very important as it provided viable information for myproject. Programming the sensor networks was the next step duringproject development. The problems, which were encountered when usingthe WSN networks, were then identified. Then, there was theidentification of the most appropriate middleware that can beinstalled without interfering with the performance of the systems.The software program is a combination of various middleware thatenhances the overall performance of the system (Akylidiz and Vuran2010, p. 132).

Duringproduction of the software program, knowledge on WSN was veryimportant. In addition, the production process would ensure that thefinal product is installable and workable. Since the product wasdesigned for sale to the customers, the operating system was designedand was indeed very attractive. With the help of other computerscience experts, the software product met the specifications neededin order not to crash or interferes with the operations of customers’computers. Since the software program was a complex one, it involveslong procedures during installation, which need an expert to completethat task. In order to ensure customer satisfaction, plans were madewhereby the software experts would visit the customers, premises.They would then conduct an interface communication with the customerswhereby the software program is installed when the customers arewatching. This would allow them to raise concerns and queries aboutthe appearance and workability of the program (Akylidiz and Vuran2010, p. 134).

Afterdeveloping the software program, there are various services that willbe delivered to the institutions applying the WSN systems. Forexample, the software program would reduce the energy consumption inthe entire WSNs systems. In large scale environments, there is thedeployment of large numbers of sensor nodes. Attempts have been madeto increase the lifespan of the nodes in sending signals to the basestations. With the new software program, there would be prolongedtime of service provided by the WSNs systems due to reduced energyconsumption by the virtual machine and Matemiddleware (Koreneff 2005, p. 47).

Themiddleware solutions would support the robust operations of thesensor networks despite changes in the environment. When sensor nodesare deployed, they usually operate in similar conditions, forexample, they have synchronized clocks. However, when the conditionschange, they might not transmit the required data, and thus the needfor middleware solutions. In other words, the middleware solutionsenhance the scalability and self maintenance of the nodes (Koreneff2005, p. 48).

Thesoftware program developed incorporates the MagnetOS operating systemwhich ensures heterogeneity of the WSNs. The middleware solutionswould bridge the gap between the hardware services and otheractivities such as communication. As a result, institutions wouldeasily communicate and receive data from the domains (Koreneff 2005,p. 49).

Thesoftware designed would ensure confidentiality, availability andprivacy of the information shared across the WSN systems. It would beachieved through assigning codes to the bits of data source sent fromthe domains. Middleware solutions supplemented with clusters reducethe replication of data, as well as, minimization of the number ofdata transmissions to the base station. Energy consumed is alsoreduced due to the aggregation of data and thus elongating the timeof service delivered by the WSN system. In summary, the softwareprogram would ensure improved battlefield surveillance, homesecurity, environmental control and more (Koreneff 2005, p. 52).

Evaluation

Theevaluation would involve determining the quality of service deliveredby the WSNs to the institutions. Quality of Service (QoS) refers tohow the WSN can meet the needs of the institutions while efficientlyusing the sources of power and other network resources. The requiredQoS is based on network capacity, time taken to transmit data andlevel of energy consumption. The network capacity relates to therange of data that the sensor nodes can send to the base station.Where the network capacity has improved in transmits high range ofdata, the middleware solutions would be efficient. If the amount ofdata received in the metrological stations is low the softwareprograms might not be working properly (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p.33).

Theduration of time taken for the data sent from the domains to thereceiver also determines the quality of service of the WSN system. Ina military application, the security personnel should determine howfrequent the signals are received especially when tracking down anenemy. Efficiency of the software programs would, therefore, beportrayed by the reduced delays, as well as, consistency intransmission of information. For example, highly efficient softwareprogram applied in industries for testing the functionality ofmachines should give the data within very small durations. On anothernote, the quality of service of networks is shown by the duration oftime taken by the WSN in service. However, this can only be assessedin the long run within one year, two years or five years.

Anotherparameter determining the quality of service includes the energyefficiency. The sensor nodes in the harsh environments use batteries,which usually do not last long. Therefore, this poses a great problemto institutions because sometimes data is not transmitted. Thesoftware program designed in this paper does not increase thelifespan of the nodes, but, supplements by reducing the energyconsumption through the use of Matemiddleware. However, through application of the clustering techniquethere is significant reduction of energy consumed by the nodes duringdata transmission. Installation of the software designed in theproject will prove its efficiency if the WSN system registers a dropin the energy consumed. Therefore, it is advisable to use themiddleware solutions and the clustering in order to increase thequality of service provided by the WSN systems (Garcia-Henardo 2008,p. 134).

Otherfactors that can determine the quality of service delivered toinstitutions include scalability, heterogeneity and the dynamicnetwork organization. The middleware offers solutions to the problemof scalability where the network can adjust in case there are changesin environmental factors and growth. Since there are no humanresources are employed to inspect the nodes, the middleware supportmechanisms, which enable the sensor nodes’ self-maintenance andconfiguration. Therefore, if applied well, the software program wouldincrease the lifespan of the nodes and hence the WSN system. Inevaluation, the environmentalists can help in determining theefficiency of the software since they record the environmentalconditions. Moreover, one can obtain information related to weatherfrom the meteorological departments. In determining the softwareprogram’s ability to cope with changes, one can depend on the dataprovided by the meteorologists (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 34).

Itis also important to assess the ability of the software in reducinghomogeneity in the WSN systems. On one hand, homogeneity is importantin creating clear and single images and, on the other hand, it is aproblem during information exchange. The performance of the softwaresystem can be determined by assessing the security and privacy issuesraised from the use of WSNs (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 35). If thesystem is more secure than before, then, the software program wouldbe efficient.

Recently,the military personnel used the WSNs systems for five times intracking terrorists in UK. None of the attempts was successful.Following the installation of the software program, they registeredsuccess in tracking down the terrorists. Their details showed that,the rate at which data was received in their systems increased from1000words/second to 1200words/second. Also, the energy consumedreduced from 50J/sec to 47.3J/sec. In this case, therefore, thequality of service increased because the success in the missioncorresponds to efficient data transmission and energy consumption.The example illustrates how integrated middleware solutions increasethe overall performance of the WSNs systems. The materials needed tocomplete the project include flash disks, Windows 7 or Windows 8operating system, computer science engineering equipments and otherservers.

References

Akylidiz,I F, &amp Vuran, M C 2010, Wirelesssensor networks,Chichester, West Sussex, U.K., John Wiley &amp Sons.

Garcia-Hernando,A.-B 2008, Problemsolving for wireless sensor networks,London, Springer.

Hadim,S, Mohamed, N 2006, Middleware:Middleware Challenges and Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks,NewYork,IEEEComputer Society.

ICTInnovations (Conference), Davcev, D, &amp Gómez, J M 2010, ICTinnovations 2009, Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Koreneff,I, &amp Sims-Mclean, K, 2005, Informationtechnology,Glebe. N.S.W., Pascal Press.

Stankovic,J A, Wood, A. D., He, T 2008, RealisticApplications for Wireless Sensor Networks,Minneapolis, University of Minnesota.

TotalProject Plan

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the Project

WBS No.

Task Description

Hours

Resources

Cost

1.0

Requirements: Middleware

5

Middleware projects

1.2

Objectives: Develop a prime software program

6

Computer Science

1.3

Final Requirements: Specific middleware and OS

10

Computer Science, Software and Middleware projects

1.4

Profile the software program

1.5

Software Design Started

0

2.0

Design software

30

Middleware projects

$2000

2.1

Contingency activity

2 days

Other Middleware Projects

$1000

3.0

Build software

20

Computer programming

$1500

4.0

Test software workability

4

Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows 8

$1100

4.1.0

Test Completed

0

4.1.1

Analysis of Test (graphs)

3

Microsoft Excel

$600

IndividualProject Proposal (IPP) Template

Individual Project Proposal Template for Submissions

CCM2426: INDIVIDUAL PROJECT PROPOSAL

Type of Proposal: Initial / Final

ORIGINATOR: (If this project has been suggested / originated / by a member of staff ) project originators name:

Laboratory

Project Title:

Using the Integrated Middleware Solutions to enhance performance of inefficient Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).

Key words

  1. 1.Middleware Solutions

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

  3. Performance of WSNs

  4. Inefficient WSNs

Problem definition

  • Some WSN systems consume large amounts of energy, operate slowly and are not flexible to environmental changes. The inefficient systems suffer from delays and inconsistencies in transmitting information.

  • In many applications the sensor nodes, which have limited power sources results the failure of the systems. Also, delays in transmission of information to the industries have been observed.

Global Aim

Creating WSN middleware that provides solutions to the challenges encountered while using the WSN systems.

Global aim broken down into WBS Objectives

  • Assess: Do research on the uses of WSN systems in military applications, home security, monitoring environment and diagnosis of machine failure. Assessment involves determining the Quality of Service (QoS) through analyzing the problems in the WSN systems. Challenges of WSN systems could be due to the use of low-powered sensor nodes, delays or technical failures.

  • Relate: Conduct a direct comparison of the methods used by the institutions in solving the problems with the anticipated solutions for the same problems. Assess the performance of the software programs used before with the current programs.

  • Improve: After the identification of the challenges encountered while applying the WSNs, develop integrated software program that would enhance the performance of WSN systems during its applications. The middleware is a software program, which is capable of combining the hardware, network stacks, operating systems and the applications of the WSNs.

  • Prioritize: During the analysis of the quality of service of WSN systems, rank the scores of the common challenges encountered in the applications. Prioritize middleware projects, which would counteract with the challenges encountered by the lowest performing WSN system.

  • Reassess: It involves assessing the performance of WSN systems in order to identify any new challenges. Also, ensuring the middleware solutions are consistent in increasing the performance of the WSN systems.

  • Reassess: It involves assessing the performance of WSN systems in order to identify any new challenges. Also, ensuring the middleware solutions are consistent in increasing the performance of the WSN systems.

Evidence of Requirement

In an article published by the New York Times in 2012, an editor analyzes how failure of the WSN systems have been a challenge to many military sectors in ensuring battlefield surveillance, as well as, enemy tracking. As he states, the major contributions to WSN failure emanate from the deployment of inefficient devices in extremely harsh environments. The sensor nodes deployed in these environments are never supervised by human beings and therefore, remain vulnerable to destruction by some environmental conditions, such as heavy rains and strong winds. Also, some daring enemies misplace and destroy the devices in those environments. He explains how painful it would be when governments have invested so much money in maintaining security, and at the end of it all enemies continue intruding their countries.

The openness in information exchange across the WSN systems reduces the privacy of information. As a result, some enemies being track down by the military forces disrupts the networks for their benefits. There have been improvements in the battlefield surveillance, but, the writer calls for more improvements on the same. Software developers should develop systems, which ensure the efficiency of WSN networks in terms of energy management, transmission of information and quality of service

General Context

The project is directly related to computer science as it will be developed based on the descriptions of sensor networks, software programs and the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Knowledge about the uses of WSNs in the military sector, industries and at home is also helpful. Enhancing the performance on WSNs is based on the key principles in computer science such as energy efficiency and scalability (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 10). The clustering technique widely discussed in computer science is important in improving the performance of the WSN in applications.

The project can be sponsored by companies such as Ofcom (UK), WSN Global Services (US), Siemens (Germany), and Mitsubishi in Japan can finance the project for the betterment of their service delivery. The UK security sector can also sponsor the implementation of the project in case it qualifies to fully improve the WSN system.

Proposed Research methods

Searching information from the internet is very important as one will get the latest information about the wireless sensor networks. One can use Google. Also, reading books, journals and other articles concerning computer science and wireless sensor networks would be important. Conducting email interviews with the managers of the WSN company sectors. The interview would involve sending questionnaires, where the managers would fill their data and details for their operating WSN systems. Then, those companies would explain whether they have software programs already existing in coordinating the operations involving the WSNs systems (Hadim and Mohamed 2006, p. 11). Information could also be obtained through engagement in group discussions with my fellow students. During the research, using the lecture notes is very important since it shows that the project is based on computer science.

Brief product description

The middleware solutions include MagnetOS operating system, Magnet, Impala and Mate.

The combination of the middleware and operating system are then programmed to form a single software program. The software program would then be installed following the most procedures outlined in the users’ manuals.

Deliverables

Single software program incorporating MagnetOS operating system, Magnet, Impala and Mate middleware.

Evaluation

The evaluation would involve determining the quality of service delivered by the WSNs to the institutions after application of the software program. Quality of Service (QoS) refers to how the WSN can meet the needs of the institutions while efficiently using the sources of power and other network resources. The required QoS is based on network capacity, time taken to transmit data and level of energy consumption. The QoS determined would show how much time, energy is saved by the institutions after the WSN systems operate efficiently.

Resources

The materials needed to complete the project include flash disks, Windows 7 or Windows 8 operating system, computer science engineering equipments and other servers.

Bibliography

Hadim, S, Mohamed, N 2006, Middleware: Middleware Challenges and Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks, New York, IEEE Computer Society.

Stankovic, J A, Wood, A. D., He, T 2008, Realistic Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota.

Total Project Plan

WBS No.

Task Description

Hours

Resources

Cost

1.0

Requirements: Middleware

5

Middleware projects

1.2

Objectives: Develop a prime software program

6

Computer Science

1.3

Final Requirements: Specific middleware and Operating System

10

Computer Science, Software and Middleware projects

1.4

Profile the software program

1.5

Software Design Started

0

2.0

Design software

30

Middleware projects

$2000

2.1

Contingency activity

2 days

Other Middleware Projects

$1000

3.0

Build software

20

Computer programming

$1500

4.0

Test software workability

4

Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows 8

$1100

4.1.0

Test Completed

0

4.1.1

Analysis of Test (graphs)

3

Microsoft Excel

$600